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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the CHILD DEVELOPMENT CONTEXTS from internal to external. (4)
Child's Biological Makeup
Immediate environment
Social and economic context
Cultural context
What are the phases in the human life span? What age do these occur?
Prenatal (-9 months to 0 months)
Infancy (1 month to 2 years)
Early Childhood (2 to 6 years
Later Childhood (6 to 11 years)
Adolescence (11 to 20 years)
Early Adulthood (20 to 40 years)
Middle Adulthood (40 to 60 years)
Later Adulthood (60 years onwards)
What are the biological markers in the human life span? What age do these occur?
Conception (-9 months)
Birth (0 months)
Walking, talking (2 years)
Puberty (11 years)
Physical maturity (20 years)
Menopause in women (50 years)
Death (? after 60)
What are the psychosocial markers in the human life span? What age do these occur?
Forming attachments (infancy - before 2 years)
Mastering basic skills (childhood - around 6 years)
Building personal and sexual identity (adolescence - 11 to 20 years)
Establishing personal and economic independence (early adulthood - 20- 40 years)
Expanding personal and social involvement and responsiblity (middle adulthood - 40-60 years)
Reforming social roles and personal goals (later adulthood - (60 years onwards)
What are three different stage theories in developmental psychology?
Piaget's cognitive structural stages
Freud's psychosexual stages
Erikson's psychosocial stages
What are piaget's cognitive structural stages?
Sensorimotor (infancy)
Preoperational (early childhood)
Concrete operational (middle and late childhood)
Formal operational(adolescence onwards)
What are Freud's psychosexual stages?
Anal Oral (infancy)
Phallic (early childhood)
Latency (middle and late childhood)
Genital (adolescence)
What are Erikson's psychosocial stages?
Autonomy vs shame + Trust vs mistrust (infancy)
Initiative vs guilt (early childhood)
Industry vs inferiority (middle and late childhood)
Identity vs role confusion (adolescence)
Intimacy vs isolation (early adulthood)
Generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood)
Ego integrity vs despair (late adulthood)
What is intelligence?
The ability to represent and manipulate information and adapt to the environement.
What is one intelligence test?
Wechsler Scales (deviation IQ score)
total score
- verbal score
- performance score
What does an intellectual disability mean?
Significant sub average IQ (70)
What are some concepts of conversion?
Conservation of mass
Conservation of length
Conservation of number
At what stage in the human life span does reasoning come in?
Adolescence
Which children's conceptions are changed by age?
Concepts of the Self
Concepts of Friendship
Concepts of the Peer Group
What are the stages of friendship?
(Stage 0) Momentary playmates
(Stage 1) One-way assistance
(Stage 2) Fair-weather cooperation
(Stage 3) intimate, mutually shared relationships
(Stage 4) autonomous, interdependent friendship
What are factors affecting the development of autonomy?
Peer resistance
Self-reliance
Emotional Autonomy
What are the three kinds of adaptation in normal adolescence?
1. Continuous growth (33%)
2. Surgent growth (45%)
3. Timultous growth (22%)
Describe the adaptation process.
Appraisal of threat
Coping strategies
Adult developmental change
Describe the biological theories of aging.
Can be Microbiological or Macrobiological

Microbiological
- cellular garbage
- cross linkage
- cellular clock
- immune system
- hypothalamus pituitary
- homeostatis organ reserve
List the Kubler-Ross's stages of dying.
Denial and isolation
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance
Describe Piaget's sensorimotor stage.
Birth - 2 years

- infant differentiates himself from objects
- gradually becomes aware of realtionship between his actions and their effects on the environment --> can act intentionally and make interesting events last longer e.g. if he shakes a rattle it will make a noise)
- learns that objects continue to exist even though no longer visible (object performance)
Describe Piaget's preoperation stage.
2-7 years

- uses language and can represent objects by images and words
- still egocentric (the world revolved around him and has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others)
- classifies objects by single salient features (if A is like B in one respect, must be like B in all other respects)
- toward the end of this stage begins to use numbers and develop conservation concepts
Describe Piaget's concrete operational stage.
7-12 years

Becomes capable of logical thought:
- achieves conservation concepts in this order: number (age 6), mass (age 7), weight (age 9)
- can classify objects, order them in series along a dimension (such as size), and understand relational items (A is longer than B)
Describe Piaget's formal operational stage.
12 years and up

- Can think in abstract terms, follow logial propositions, and reason by hypothesis
- isolates the elements of a problem and systematially explores all possible solutions
- becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future and ideological problems