Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/287

Click to flip

287 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three characteristics of a cell
1. is the basic unit of living organism

2. carries out metabolism

3. provide nrg for metabolic rxns in the form of chemical ATP
how do cells provide nrg for metabolic rxns?
chemical atp
what do cells carry out
metabolism
T or F

cells accomplish all activities and produce all compnents of the body
T
include enzymes, some hormones and structural materials
proteins
include sugars and starches
carbohydrate
what is the main carbohydrate

what does it do
sugar, glucose

circulate in the blood yo provide nrg for cells
include fats
lipids
T or F some hormones are derived from lipids
T
What does adipose fat tissue store
lipids
which part of the cell is composed mostly of lipids and proteins

is the outer layer of the cell
plasma membrane
short extensions of the cell membranee. Absorb materials into the cell
microvilli
near the cent of the cell, composed of DNA and protein. Contains the chromosomes and hereditary info
nucleus
the nucleus in composed of ____ and ____

where the nucleolus is composed of what?
nucleus is composed of DNA and proteins

nucleolus is composed of rna, dna and proteins
Wha makes ribosomes
nucleolus
fills the plasma membrane, is the site of cellular activities
consists of cytosol and organelles
cytoplams
The cytoplasm is made of the ____ and _____
cytosol, organelles
Surrounds organelles

is the fluid portion of the cytoplams
cytosol
has ribososmes attatched to it
rough er ONLY
sorts proteins and forms more complex compounds
rouch ER
involved in lipid syntheses
smooth ER
network of membranes within the cytoplams
ER
manufacture proteins
ribosomes
can be free in the cytoplasm or attatched to the ER
ribosomes
ribosomes are composed of ____ and ____
RNA and protein
convert nrg from nutrients into ATP,

has a folded mmbrn inside
mitochondria
layers of membranes; makes compounds containing proteins, sorts and prepres compounds for transport
golgi apparatus
small sacs of digestive enzymes
lysosomes
membrane enclosed orgnanelles containing enzymes , break down harmful substances
peroxisomes
small sacs in the cytoplasm, store/move materials into or our of the cell (in bulk)
vesicles
(usually 2) rod shapped bodies near the nucleus, help seperate the chromosome during cell division
centrioles
move fluids around cell, short hairlike structurees
cilia
moves the cell, long whip like extension from the cell
flagellum
(usually 2) rod shapped bodies near the nucleus, help seperate the chromosome during cell division
centrioles
move fluids around cell, short hairlike structurees
cilia
moves the cell, long whip like extension from the cell
flagellum
the control region of the cell
nucleus
contains chromosomes
nucleus
carrys genetic info
chromosomes
human cells contain __ chromosomes except for the ___ cells
46, sex
Dna is organized into seperate units called____
genes
the process in which lysosomes recycle cellular structures
autophagy
digesting a cell
autolysis
T or F. autolysis is a normal part of development
T
if u control which 3 things it is useful for patients especially with dibetes and it helps control a lot of other things
proteins, carbs, lipids
what is insulin
a hormone
seperate units of DNA
genes
control the formation of enzymes (needed for metabolism)
genes
catalysts needed for metabolic rxns
enzymes
body cells divide by the process of _____
mitosis
During____ the chromosomes are doubles and _ daughter cells are made
mitosis,

2
when a cell is not dividing, what stage does it remain in?
interphase
Sex cells divide by a process called
meosis
What happens to the chromosomes and daughter cells in mitosis ? what about meoisis
mitosis=chrom double--> 2 daughter cells

meoisis=chrom are halved
What phasrs are part of mitosis

interphases, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase?
prophase, meta phase, anaphase, telophase
During which phase are chromosomes seperated?


interphases, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase?
anaphase
during which phase does the plasma membran divide?
temlphase
What are th 4 types of tissues cells are organized into?
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
which tissue covers and protects body structures, lines organs
epithelial
which tissue
simple single layer of the skin, functions to absorb substances from 1 system to another
epithelial
which tissue

stratified, multiple layers; protects deeper tossie
epithelial
which tissue

supports and binds body structures
connective
contains fibers and other non living material btwn cells
connective
which tissue

includes adipose, cartilage and bone
connective
which tissue

3 types of muscle tissue
skeletal, cardiac, smooth/ visceral
which tissue

contracts to produce movement
muscle
Which muscle tissue is voluntary? Which is involuntary
vol=

skeletal,

Invol=

cardiac, smooth. visceral
which tissue

makes uo the brain, spinal chords and nerves?
nervous tissue
which tissue

coordinates and controls body responses by the transmission of electrial impulses
nervous
basic cell in the nervous tissue
neruron or nerve cell
what cna smoking do to tissues?
cause tissues to change to another type
the simplest tissues are ____
membranes
3 types of membranse
mucous
serous
fibrous
What is the role of mucus membranse
secrete mucus
what is the role of serious membrane?

what organs does it include
secrete watery fluid, line body cavities, cover organs

(such as the organs around the heart and lungs)
What is the role of fibrous membranes?
cover and support organs around the bones, brain and spinal chord
which membrane deals with heart and lung organse
serious
which membrane deals with bones, brain and the spinal chorid
fibrous
what type of membran is big pharmaceutically?
mucous
the study of tissues
histology
tissues are arranged into
organs
is comprised of tissues
organs
is grouped into systems (according to function)
organs
have a specific function
systems
do systems work togehter or independantly
they work together, nto independantly
what is the goals of systmes
to create homeostasis within the body
what creates a change in homeostsis
drugs
a microscopic unit that combines with otjer ____ to form a tissue
cells
study of cells
cytology
simplests sugar that circulatesi n the blood
glucose
the sum of all physical and chemical rxns that occur within an orgms
metabollism
specialized structure in the cytoplasm
organelle
Roots for cells and tissues:

morpho
form
Roots for cells and tissues:

amorphous
without form
cyt/o, cyte
cell
cytogenesis
formation of cells
nucle/o
nucleus
nucleoplasm
substance that gills the nucleus
kary/o
nuclueus
karyotype
picture of a cells chromosomes organized
histo, histio
tissue
fibro
fiber
fibrosis
abnormal formation of fibrous tissues
reticul/o
network
reticulum
a network
adeno
gland
adenoma
tumor of the gland
Roots for cells and tissues:

morpho
form
Roots for cells and tissues:

amorphous
without form
cyt/o, cyte
cell
cytogenesis
formation of cells
nucle/o
nucleus
nucleoplasm
substance that gills the nucleus
kary/o
nuclueus
karyotype
picture of a cells chromosomes organized
histo, histio
tissue
fibro
fiber
ventral cavity above diaphram aka chest cavity
thoracic
reticul/o
network
reticulum
a network
adeno
gland
adenoma
tumor of the gland
papill/o
nipple
papilla
projection that resembles a nipple
myx/o
mucous
myxadenitis
inflammation of a mucous secreting gland
muc/o
mucus, mucous membrane
mucorrhea
increased flow of mucus
somat/o, -some
body, small body
chromosome
small body that takes up color (dye)
blast/o, -blast
immature cell, productive cell, embryonic cell
blastocyte
an early embryonic cell
gen
origin, formation
histogeneis
organin or formation of tissues
phag/o
eat, ingest
autophagy
self destruction of organelles
phil
attract, absrob
basophilic
attracting basic statin
plas
formation, modling, development
hypoplasia
unerdevelipment of an organ/ tissue
trop
act on, affect
chronotropic
affecting rate or timing
troph/o
feesing, growth, nourishment
hypertrophy
overdevelopment of tissue
suffix

-ase
enzyme
enzyme that digests fat lipids
lipase
suffix:

-ose
sugar
Roots:

hydr/o
water, fluid
attracting water
hydrophillic
Roots:

glyc/o
sugar, glucose
normoglycemia
normal blood sugar level
sacchar/o
sugar
amyl/o
starch
amyloid
resembling starch
lip/o
lipid, fat
lipogenesis
formation of fat
adip/o
fat
steat/o
fatty
steatirrhea
discharge of fatty stools
prote/o
protein
a fribrous tissue found in connective tissue
collagen
the outer region of an organ
cortex
sugar stored in live and muscles, broken down into glucose when needed for nrg
glycogen
the inner region of an organ
medulla

(the inner region of an organ)
the functional tissue of an organ
parenchymal


the functional tissue of an organ
pertaining to a wall, membrane that lines a body cavity
parietal


pertaining to a wall, membrane that lines a body cavity
the body
soma
pertaining to the internal organs, describes a membrane on the surface of an organ
visceral
Describe the characteristics of the anatomical position

beginning ______,
body ______,
facing ______,
arms ______
palms ______,
feet ______
beginning reference point,
body upright,
facing front,
arms at side,
palms forwards,
feet parallel
toward the front (belly) of the body
anterior (ventral)
toward the back of the body
posterior (dorsal)
another word for anterior
ventral
another word for posterior
dorsal
toward the midline of the body
medial
toward the side of the body
lateral
nearest to the point of attatchment of to the ref. point?
proximal
farthese from the point of attatchment of to the ref. point?
distal
above, higher position
superior
below, lower position
inferior
toward the lower end of the spine

This is an inferior direction in humans

cuda means "tail"
caudal
closer to the suraface of the body
superficial (external)
closer to the center of the body
deep (internal
aka coronal plane
frontal plane
which plane is made at right angle to the midline and divides the anterior and posterior parts?
frontal (coronal) plane
which plane passes from front to back and divices the body into the right and left portions
sagital plane
which plane passes through the midline
medial plane
Which plane passes horzontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
transverse plane
transverse plane divides the body into which parts
superior and inferior parts
frontal plane divides the body into which parts
anterior and posterior parts?
in which cavities are internal organs located?
dorsal and ventral cavities
Which two cavities are located in the dorsal cavity
cranial and spinal cavity
Which cavities are located in the abdominopelvic cavity
abdomino, pelvic
where is the abdominopelvic vacity located
ventral cavity
what seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
diaphram
there is no anatomical seperation between which to cavities
abdominal, pelvic
What makes up the ventral cavity
thoracic cavity abdominalpelvic cavity (abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity)
what are the names of the 3 main body cavities
dorsal, abdominal pelvic, ventral
What can be divided into 9 regions
the abdominal regions
What are the 9 regions of the abdomin
Right hypochondriac region, epigastric region, left hypochondriac region, right lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region, right illial (inguinal region), hypogastric region, left iliac
What are the three abdominal regions down the midline
epigastric
umbilical
hypogastric
abdominal region that is located above the stomach
epigastric
abdominal region named for the umbilicus or naval
umbilical
abdominal region located below the stomach
hypogastric
which abdominal region is located near the ribs and catrilage of the ribs
right and left hypochondriac
which abdominal region is located near the small of the back/spine
right and left lumbar
which abdominal cavity is located near the bone of the hip with reference to the groin
the right and left iliac
what is another name for iliac
inguinal
What happens to the abdominal cavity is one is pregnant?
everything pushes out
what is another name for the small part of the back?
lumbar
decubitus position
lying down
dorsal recumbent position
on back with legs bent and seperate, feet flat
position used for gynocology
dorsal recumbent
cavity below diaphram and above pelvic cavity
abdominal
fowler postion
on back, head of bed raised, knees elevated
jacknife position
on back, shoulders elevated, legs flexed and things at righ angle to abdomin
Ventral cavity below the abdominal cavity
pelvic
knee chest position
on knees and upper chest on table, arms crossed above head
lg serous mmbrn that lines the abdominopeliv cavity and covers the organs w/in it
peritoneum
lying face up
supine
lying face down
prone
what cavity does the cranial cavity reside in
dorsal cavity
cepal/o
head
cervic/o
neck
thorac/o
chest/thorax
abdomin/o
abdomen
celi/o
abdormen
lumb/o
lumbar region/lower back
thoracolumbar
pertaining to the chest and lumbar region
periton.peritone/o
peritoneum
acro
extremity, end
acrocyanosis
bluish discoloration of the extremities
brachi/o
arm
antebrachium
forearm
dactyl/o
finger/toe
ped/o
foot
pod/o
foot
circum
around
peri
around
intra
in, within
epi
on, over
epithelium
tissue that covers surfaces
extra
outside
infra
below
sub
below, under
inter
btwn
juxta
near, beside
para
near, beside
retro
behind, bachward
supra
above
digit
finger/toe
epigastrium
epigastric region
base or body of a hollow organ, the area of an organ farthest from its opening
fundus
the hypochondriac region (left or right)
hypochondrium
central opening within a tube or hollow organ
lumen

central opening within a tube or hollow organ
passage or opening
meatus

passage or oepning
the opening of a cavity
orfice

the opening of a cavity
mouth, any body opening
os

mouth, any body opening
a wall dividing two cavities
septum

a wall dividing two cavities
a cavity within a bone
sinus

a cavity within a bone
a circular muscle that regulates an opening
sphincter

a circular muscle that regulates an opening
N2 containing compounds that make up protein
amino acids
metabolism in which body substances are made,

building phase metabolism
anabolism
Position used for

(obstetrics and gynecology 2)
dorsal re cumbent

and

knee-chest
Position used for

ease of breathing/drainage
fowlers
Position used for

introduce tube into urethra
jack knife
Position used for

obstetrics and gynecology AND flushing intestine
knee-chest
Position used for

gynecology and urological surgery
lithotomy
Position used for

kidney and unterine surgery, colon examination, enemas
sims
Position used for

pelvic/abdominal surgery, TX of shock
trendelenberg
microcephaly
abnormal smallness of the head
cervicofacial
pertaining to neck and face
intrathoracic
within thorax (chest )
intra abdominal
within abdomin
celiac
pertaining to abdomen
laparoscope
instrument used for viwing peritoneal cavity thru abdominal wall
thoraculumbar
pertaining to chest and lumbar regions
peritoneal
pertaining to peritoneum
circumoral
around the mouth
periorbital
around the eye
intravascular
within the vessel
extrathoracic
outside throax
infracostal
below ribs (cost/o)
interscapular
btwn scapulare (shoulder blades)
juxtaposition
location near/beside another structure
parasagittal
near or beside a sagittal plane
retouterine
behind the uterus
supratellar
abover the patella

(knee cap)