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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
acr/o
extremities
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal glands
adrenal/o
adrenal glands
andr/o
male
calc/o
calcium
crin/o
secrete
estr/o
female
glyc/o
sugar
glycos/o
sugar
gonad/o
sex glands
home/o
sameness
kal/i
potassium
natr/o
sodium
ophthalm/o
eye
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid gland
pineal/o
pineal gland
pituitar/o
pituitary gland
somat/o
body
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
tox/o
poison
-crine
to secrete
-dipsia
thirst
-emia
blood condition
-tropin
stimulate
-uria
urine condition
cortisol
regulates carbohydrate levels in the body
aldosterone
regulates electrolytes and fluid volume in body
androgen, estrogen, progesterone
responsible for reproduction and secondary sexual characteristics
epinephrine(adrenaline)
intensifies response during stress "fight or flight" response
norepinephrine
chiefly a vasoconstrictor
estrogen
stimulates development of secondary sex charachteristics in females; regulates menstrual cycle
progetsterone
prepares for conditions of pregnancy
glucagon
stimulates liver to release glucose into the blood
insulin
regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells
parathyroid hormone
stimulates bone breakdown; regulates calcium level in the blood
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
regulates function of adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates growth of eggs in female and sperm in males
growth hormone (GH)
stimulates growth of the body
luteinizing hormone (LH)
regulates function of male and female gonads and plays a role in releasing ova in females
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
stimulates pigment in the skin
prolactin
stimulates milk production
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
regulates function of thyroid gland
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
stimulates reabsorption of water by the kidneys
oxytocin
stimulates uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts
testosterone
promotes sperm production and development of secondary sex characteristics in males
thymosin
promotes development of cells in immune system
calcitonin
stimulates deposition of calcium into bone
thyroxine (T4)
stimulates metabolism in cells
triiodothyronine (T3)
stimulates metabolism in cells
adrenal cortex
glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralcorticoids (aldosterone), steroid sex hormones (adrogen, estrogen, progesterone)
adrenal medulla
epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine
ovaries
estrogen, progesterone
pancreas
glucagon, insulin
parathyroid glands
parathyroid hormone
pituitary anterior lobe
ATCH, FSH, GH, LH, MSH,TSH, prolactin
pituitary posterior lobe
ADH, oxytocin
testes
testosterone
thymus
thymosin
thyroid gland
calcitonin, T3, T4
adenoma
gland tumor
adrenomegaly
enlarged adrenal gland
adrenopathy
adrenal gland disease
adrenalectomy
excision of adrenal glands
adrenalitis
inflammation of an adrenal glands
adrogen
male forming
hypercalcemia
excessive calcium in the blood
hypocalcemia
low calcium in the blood
endocrinologist
specialist in the endocrine system
endocrinology
study of the endocrine system
endocrinopathy
endocrine system disease
estrogen
female forming
hyperglycemia
excessive sugar in the blood
hypoglycemia
low sugar in the blood
hyperkalemia
excessive potassium in the blood
hyponatremia
low sodium in the blood
parathyroidectomy
excision of the parathyroid gland
parathyroidoma
parathyroid gland tumor
thyromegaly
enlarged thyroid
thyrotoxicosis
adnormal condition of poisoning by the thyroid
thyroidectomy
excision of the thyroid
euthyroid
normal thyroid
hyperthyroidism
state of excessive thyroid
hypothyroidism
state of low thyroid
thyroidotomy
incision into thyroid gland
polydipsia
many (excessive) thrist
plyuria
condition of (too) much urine
glycosuria
sugar in the urine
edema
condition in which the body tissue ccontains excessive amounts of fluid
exophthalmos
condition in which the eyeballs protrude
gynecomastia
the development of breast tissue in males, may be a symptom of adrenal feminization
hirutism
condition of having an excessive amount of hair, term generally used to describe females who have the adult male pattern of hair growth
hypersecretion
excessive hormone produciton of an endocrine gland
hyposecretion
deficient hormone production of an endocrine glad
metabolism
sum of all chemical and physical changes that take place in the body
obesity
having an abnormal amount of fat in the body
syndrome
group of symptoms and signs that, when combined, present a clinical picture of a disease or condition
acidosis
excessive acidity of body fluids due to the accumulation of acids
acromegaly
chronic disease of adults that result in an elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities
addison's disease
results from a deficiency in adrenocortical hormones, increased pigmentation of the skin, generalized weakness, and weight loss
adenocarcinoma
a cancerous tumor in a gland that is capable of producing the hormones secreted by that gland
adrenal feminization
development of female secondary sexual characteristics in a male, increase estrogen secretion
adrenal virilism
development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a female, increasedandrogen secretion
cretinism
congenital condition in which a lack of thyroid may result in arrested physical and mental development
cushing's syndrome
set of symptoms that result from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, possible tumor of the adrenal glands, weakness, edema, excess hair growth, skin discoloration, and asteoporosis
diabetes insipidus (DI)
disorder caused by the inadequate secretion of a hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary glad, polyuria, polydipsia
diabetes mellitus (DM)
chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that results in hyperglycemia and glycosuria
type 1
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
type 2
non-insulin-dependents diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
diabetic retinopathy
secondary compication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in visual changes and even blindness
dwarfism
condition of being abnormally short in height, hereditary condition or a lack of growth hormone
gigantism
excessive development of the body due to the overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland in a child or teenager
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland
graves' disease
condition that results ing overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation, hyperthyroidism
hasimoto's disease
chronic form of thyroiditis
hyperthyroidism
condition that results from overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation, graves' disease
hypothyroidism
result of a deficiency in secretion by the thyroid gland, lowered basal metabolism rate with obesity, dry skin, slow pulse, low blood pressure, sluggishness, and goiter
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
type 1, develops early in life when the pancreas stops insulin production
insulinoma
tumor of the islets of langerhans cells of the pancreas that secretes an excessive amount of insulin
katoacidosis
acidosis due to an excess of acidic ketone bodies (waste products), serious condition requiring immediate treatment that can result in deathe for the diabetic patient if not reveresed
myxedema
condition resulting from a hypofunction of the thyroid gland, anemia, slow speech, enlarged tongue and facial features, edematous skin, drowsiness, and mental apathy
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
type 2, develops later in life when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin
panhypopituitarinism
dificiency in all the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland
peripheral neuropathy
damage to the nerves in the lower legs and hands as a result of diabetes mellitus, extreme sensitivity or numbness and tingling
pheochromocytoma
usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine, anxiety, heart palpitations, dyspnea, profuse sweating, headache, nausea
tetany
painful muscle cramps that result from hypocalcemia
thyrotoxcosis
condition that results from overproduction of the thyroid gland, rapid heart action, tremors, enlarged thyroid gland, exophthalmos, weight loss
von recklinghausen's disease
excessive production of parathyroid hormone, degeneration of the bones
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
somewhat outdated test to measure the enery used when the body is in a state of rest
blood serum test
blood test to measure the level of substances such as calcium, electrolytes, testosterone, inslin, ad glucose, determines function of many edocrine glands
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
blood test to measure the amounts of sugar circulation throughout the body after a 12hour fast
protein-bound iodine test (PBI)
blood test to measure te concentration of thyroxine (T4) circulationg in the bloodstream, est. thyroid function
radioactive iodine uptake test(RAIU)
radioctive iodine is taken, measure the amount that is eventually taken into the thyroid gland to determin function
radioimmunoassay (RIA)
measure the levels of hormones in the plasma of the blood
serum glucose tests
assist in determining insulin levels and useful for adjusting medication dosage
thyroid echogram
ultrasound examination of the thyroid that can assist in distinguishing a thyroid nodule from a cyst
thyroid function test (TFT)
blood test that measures the levels of T3, T4, TSH to determine thyroid function
thyroid scan
radioactive iodine is administered that localizes in thyroid, used to detect tumors
total calcium
blood test to measure the total amount of calcium to assist in deteting parathyroid and bone disorders
two-hour postprandial glucose tolerance test
blood test to assist in evaluating glucose metabolism
chemical thyroidectomy
large dose of radioactive iodine is given in order to kill thyroid gland cells wihout having to actually do surgery
laparoscopic adrenaetomy
excision of the adrenal gland through a small incision in the abdomen and using endoscopic instruments
lobectomy
excision of ony one lobe of the thyroid gland
paratyroidectomy
excision of one or more of te parathyroid glands
thymectomy
removal of the thymus gland
throidectomy
removal of the entire thyroid or a portion to treat a variety of conditions, including nodes, cancer, and hyperthyroidism
thyroparathyroidectomy
surgical removal (excision) of the thyroid and parathyroid glands
corticosteroids
regulate carbohydrate metabolism, strong anti-inflammatory action
epinephrine
used to constrict blood vessels and block severe allergic reactions
human growth hormone therapy
stimulate skeletal growth
insulin
replace insulin for type 1 diabetes or to treat severe type 2 diabetes
oral hypoglycemic agents
cause a decrease in blood sugar
thyroid replacement hormone
given to replace thyroid in patients with hypothyroidism or who have had a thyroidectomy
vasopressin
control diabetes insipidus and promote reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules