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58 Cards in this Set

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periosteum
outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue
compact bone
dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
cancellous bone
contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
endosteum
membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
diaphysis
shaft of the long bones
epiphysis
ends of the long bones
bone marrow
material found in the cavities of bones
red marrow
thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones. Location of blood cell formation.
yellow marrow
soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones.
maxilla
upper jawbone
mandible
lower jawbone
vertebral column
made up of bones called vertebrae through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides a point of attachment for ribs and muscles.
cervical vertebrae
first set of seven bones, forming the neck
thoracic vertebrae
second set of 12 vertebrae, they articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine.
lumbar vertebrae
third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine.
sacrum
last set of five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones.
coccyx
four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone.
lamina
part of the vertebral arch
clavicle
collarbone
scapula
shoulder blade
acromion
extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder.
sternum
breastbone
xiphoid process
lower portion of the sternum
humerus
upper arm bone
ulna and radius
lower arm bones
carpal bones
wrist bones
metacarpal bones
hand bones
phalanges
fingers and toes
pelvic bone, hip bone
made up of three bones fused together.
ischium
lower, rear portion of the pelvis on which one sits
ilium
upper, wing-shaped part on each side of the pelvis
pubis
anterior portion of the pelvic bone
acetabulum
large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur.
femur
upper leg bone
tibia and fibula
lower leg bones
patella
kneecap
tarsal bones
ankle bones
cancaneus
heel bones
metatarsal bones
foot bones
articular cartilage
smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surfaces of joints
meniscus
crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee
intervertebral disk
cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine
pubic symphysis
cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones fuse together
synovia
fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities
bursa
fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another
ligament
flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint.
tendon
band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
aponeurosis
strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone
skeletal muscles (striated muscles)
attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. voluntary muscles
smooth muscles
located in internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. involuntary muscles.
cardiac muscles
forms most of the wall of the heart. its involuntary contraction produces the heart rate.
inversion
turning inward
eversion
turning outward
extension
movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position
flexion
movement in which a limb is bent
pronation
movement that turns the palm down
supination
movement that turns the palm up
rotation
turning around its own axis