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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
acro
extremities
adeno
gland
adreno
adrenal glands
adrenalo
adrenal glands
andro
male
calco
calcium
crino
secrete
estro
female
glyco
sugar
glycoso
sugar
gonado
sex glands
homeo
sameness
kali
potassium
natro
sodium
ophthalmo
eye
pancreato
pancreas
parathyroido
parathyroid gland
pinealo
pineal gland
pituitaro
pituitary gland
somato
body
thymo
thymus gland
thyro
thyroid gland
toxo
poison
-crine
to secrete
-dipsia
to thirst
-emia
blood condition
-tropin
stimulate
-uria
condition of the urine
the endocrine system is...
... a collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood system.
hormones
chemicals that act on their target organ
the endocrine system is instrumental in maintaining..
homeostasis
homeostasis
adjusting the activity level of most of the tissues and organs in the body to maintain a stable internal environ
the body has two distinct types of glands....
... exocrine and endocrine
exocrine glands
carry secretions outside the body
endocrine glands
release their secretions into the body... spec, the blood
the secretion of the thyroid is called a ___ less gland
ductless, as it empties directly into the blood
the four P's of the endocrine system?
pineal, pituitary, pancreas, and parathyroid
the three T's of the endocrine system?
thymus, thyroid, testes
last two organs of the endocrine system not covered by the P's or the T's?
ovaries and adrenal glands
adrenal cortex releases cortisol which...
regulates carb levels in the body
adrenal cortex releases aldosterone which...
regulates electrolytes and fluid vol. in body
adrogen, estrogen, and progesterone are all responsible for...
secondary sexual characteristics
epinephrine (adrenaline) intensifies....
response during stress (fight or flight)
norepinephrine acts primarily as a...
vasoconstrictor
estrogen stimulates.... and regulates...
stimulates dev of secondary sexual char, regulates menstrual cycle (uterine term)
progesterone prepares...
the lining of the uterus for pregnancy
the pancreas creates glucagon which...
... stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood
the pancreas creates insulin which..
regulates and promotes entry of glucose into cells
FSH (follice stimulating hormone)...
stimulates eggs in females and sperm in males
melanocyte stimulating hormone...
stimulates melanocytes in the skin to produce pigment
prolactin...
stimulates milk production
oxytocin
stimulate uterine contractions and releases milk into ducts
thymosin
promotes dev of cells in immune sys
calcitonin
stimulates depositing of Ca into bone
the adrenal glands are located
above the kidneys
the adrenal glands are composed of two parts:
the cortex and the medulla
hormones produced in the cotex of the adrenal glands are collectively called...
corticosteroids
the female gonads are known as
ovaries
gonads produce
gametes
the pancreas is located
along the lower curvature of the stomach
the pancreas is the only organ of the body to have both __ and __ functions
endo and exocrine functions
the exocrine function of the pancreas secretes __ into the __
secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum of the small intestine
the endocrine sections of the pancreas are known as
islets of langerhans
islets of langerhans produce two different hormones: __ and __
insulin and glucagon
loss or impairment of the function of insulin will result in...
diabetes mellitus (DM)and hence hyperglycemia
overproduction of insulin will result in...
hypoglycemia
type 1 diabetes is
insulin dependent; the islet cells have been destroyed
type 2 diabetes is
non insulin dependent; the islet cells still exist but the insulin has lost the ability to effect the body
type 2 diabetes is treated by
diet, exercise, etc
glucagon is released when the body...
needs more sugar, such as at the beginning of strenuous activity or several hours after the last meal
diabetes insipidus
the result of inadequate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone
parathyroid glands
help regulate calcium levels in the blood
the pineal gland is involved in this little-understood mechanism:
circadian rhythms
the pituitary gland is located...
... on the underneath side of the brain
the anterior pituitary gland secretes many important hormones
like growth hormone (GH), thyroid stim horm (TSH), prolactin, FSH, LH, and MSH
thymosin helps __ cells develop
helps T cells
the most important function of the thymus is
the development of the immune sys in the newborn
an adams apple is
thyroid cartilage
exophthalmos
condition in which the eyeballs protrue, often caused by overproduction of thyroid hormone
gynecomastia
the development of breat tissue in men
hirsutism
excessive hair growth, esp for women
acidosis
excessive acidity of body fluids
acromegaly
chronic disease resulting in elongation and enlargement of the bones of the head and extremities.
adrenal feminization
development of female secondary sexual characteristics
adrenal virilism
development of male secondary sexual char.
cretinism
lack of thyroid; results in arrested physical and mental development
cushing's syndrome
result of hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex; weakness, edema, osteoporosis
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland
graves disease
overactivity of the thyroid gland and can cause a crisis situation