Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/52

Click to flip

52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Diabetes Insipidus-Nephrogenic
Diabetes Insipidus-Nephrogenic

Nephrogenic- Kidney Malfunction
Diabetes Insipidus- Cerebral
Diabetes Insipidus- Cerebral

Head trauma or trauma to pituitary. Can result from surgical trauma.
Diabetes Insipidus- clinical manifestations-
Diabetes Insipidus- clinical manifestations-

Increased urine output
Lower specific gravity in urine
Altered thirst mechanism
Dehydration
Diabetes Insipidus resulting from brain trauma- manifestations
Diabetes Insipidus resulting from brain trauma- manifestations

Localized swelling blocks the transport of ADH from hypothalamus to pituitary
Diabetes Insipidus- interventions
Diabetes Insipidus- interventions

Administer Fluids
Administer Pitressin (synth ADH)
Sodium (Na) value
Sodium (Na) value

135-145 mEq/L
Sodium- function
Sodium- function

maintain extracellular volume and water balance
aids to transmit nerve impulses
Hypernatremia- causes
Hypernatremia- causes

Decreased water intake
Fluid loss
Osmotic diuresis
Hyperglycemia
Salt water intake
Profuse diaphoresis accompanied by low water intake
Hyperaldosteronism-too much sodium in blood.
Diabetes Insipidus
Hypernatremia- Clinical manifestations
Hypernatremia- Clinical manifestations

Decreased mental status
Decreased turgor
Dry skin and dry mucous membranes
Thirst
Hypernatremia- interventions
Hypernatremia- interventions

Administer hypotonic IV (0.455% NSS)
Water
Administer oral hygeine
Hyponatremia- causes
Hyponatremia- causes

Sweating followed by large plain water intake causes dilution of plasma sodium
Increased ADH
Adrenal Insufficiency (decreased aldosterone so Na levels fall)
Hyponatremia- clinical manifestations
Hyponatremia- clinical manifestations

Neurological symptoms due to brain swelling
Weight gain
Edema
Rales
Abdominal cramps
Low hematocrit
Low BUN
Orthostatic hypotension
Hyponatremia- Interventions
Hyponatremia- Interventions

Administer hypotonic IV
Diuretics
Potassium value
Potassium value

3.5-5 mEq/L
Potassium- Functions
Potassium- Functions

Cellular metabolism
Transmission of neuromuscular impulses
supports cardiac cycle
Acid base balance
Any condition that increases urinary output decreases potassium
Hypokalemia- Causes
Hypokalemia- Causes

Diuretics
GI Losses
Adrenal Tumor- may cause excess secretion of aldosterone,which then secretes too much Ka
Hypokalemia- clinical manifestations
Hypokalemia- clinical manifestations

Malaise
Muscle Weakness
Leg Cramps
Fatigue
Decreased reflexes
Abnormal ECG and dysrhythmias
Hypokalemia- interventions
Hypokalemia- interventions

Administer potassium
Oral or IV (NEVER IV PUSH potassium, THIS CAN BE FATAL)
Hyperkalemia- causes
Hyperkalemia- causes

Renal insufficiency
Cellular destruction
Excessive administration of Ka
Adrenal Insufficiency- too little aldosterone.
Hyperkalemia- clinical manifestations
Hyperkalemia- clinical manifestations

Mental changes
Abnormal ECG
Lethal disrhythmia
Dialysis (#1 cause)
Hyperkalemia- interventions
Hyperkalemia- interventions
Glucose and insulin concentrate to move Ka into cells
Sodium Bicarbonate for acidosis
Kayexelate enema or oral
Calcium value
Calcium value

8.5-10.5mEq/L
Calcium- function
Calcium- function

formation of bone and teeth
blood clotting
myocardial contractility
nerve impulse conduction (suppressant effect)
Calcium- regulation
Calcium- regulation

Vitamin D
Parathyroid
Hypocalcemia- causes
Hypocalcemia- causes

Hypoparathyroid
Pancreatitis
Low dietary Ca
Alkalosis
Renal disease (kidneys activate V-D, Vit D helps absorb Ca)
Hypocalcemia- clinical manifestations
Hypocalcemia- clinical manifestations

hyperactive reflexes
tingling in face fingers toes
Muscle spasm
tetany
Decreased blood clotting
Bronchospasms
(assess by checking trousseau's signs)
Hypocalcemia- interventions
Hypocalcemia- interventions

Oral or IV calcium (NEVER IM CALCIUM)
Hypercalcemia- causes
Hypercalcemia- causes

Hyperparathyroidism- causes too much Ca to be retained
Malignancies-some cancers produce pth.
Osteoporosis
Prolonged immobility
Decreased renal function
Hypercalcemia- clinical manifestations
Hypercalcemia- clinical manifestations

Hypotonicity
Lethargy
Increased blood clotting
Extreme thirst
Decreased neuromuscular function
Kidney Stones
Fractures-too much Ca can cause breaks.
Hypercalcemia- interventions
Hypercalcemia- interventions
Parathyroidectomy
Steriods (they decrease GI absorption of Ca)
Mitromycin
Calcitonin
Magnesium value
Magnesium value

1.5-2.5mEq/L
Hypomagnesemia-causes
Hypomagnesemia-causes

Decreased Mg intake
Malnutrition
Alcoholism
Hypomagnesemia-clinical manifestations
Hypomagnesemia-clinical manifestations

tremors
hyperactivity
tetany
positive Trousseau's
Confusion
Agitation
Hypomagnesemia- interventions
Hypomagnesemia- interventions
Replace Magnesium- IV (Mg salts)IV Mg can cause cardiac arrest if given too quickly.
Oral
IM
Hypermagnesemia- causes
Hypermagnesemia- causes

Renal failure- may be exacerbated by meds containing magnesium.
Hypermagnesemia- clinical manifestations
Hypermagnesemia- clinical manifestations

Lethargy
Slow/Weak pulse
Low BP
Decreased tonicity
Brachypnea
Hypermagnesemia- interventions
Hypermagnesemia- interventions

Dialysis
Stop intake of Mg.
Magnesium- function
Magnesium- function

Nerve impulse conduction
Chemical metabolism
Cardiac conduction
Trousseaus Signs
Trousseaus Signs

BP cuff inflated for 3-4 minutes hand claws up.
Electrolytes
Electrolytes

- substances which when dissolved in water separate into ions (capable of conducting electricity)
Intracellular Electrolytes
Intracellular Electrolytes

potassium(K) and magnesium (Mg)
Extracellular Electrolytes
Extracellular Electrolytes
Sodium and Chloride
Third Spacing
Third Spacing

- shift of fluid from vascular space to another part of the body (interstitial space)
Third spacing- causes
Third spacing- causes

increased hydrostatic pressure- as seen in CHF
Too much fluid in vessels
Decreased plasma proteins
Liver disease
Increased capillary permeability- sepsis, trauma and burns
Third Spacing- clinical manifestations
Third Spacing- clinical manifestations

Weak right sided pressure
Low albumin levels
Protein levels
Third Spacing- interventions
Third Spacing- interventions

IV albumin
Lasix after IV treatment
In sepsis, treat cause
SIADH (Syndrome Of Inappropriate Diuretic Hormone)
SIADH (Syndrome Of Inappropriate Diuretic Hormone)

Excessive ADH production
Antidiuretic Hormone - function
Antidiuretic Hormone - function

- produced & stored in the hypothalamus
- stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water decreasing urine output, supporting BP and blood volume
- stimulate peripheral blood vessels to constrict
Cacitonin - function
Cacitonin - function

- targets bone and kidney cells
- to regulate calcium ion concentration in body fluids
Function
T4 - Thyroxine
T3 - Triiodothyronine
Function
T4 - Thyroxine
T3 - Triiodothyronine

- bind to mitochondria and nucleus of cells to increase the rate of ATP production
Pancreas - function
Pancreas - function

- regulates blood glucose concentrations
Thyroidectomy - Postoperative Care
Thyroidectomy - Postoperative Care

1. Provide Comfort (analgesics, semi-Fowler's positon, head & neck supported by pillows, ice collar to wound - for comfort and to prevent edema)
2. Monitor for hemorrhage (dressing, exudate,) auscultate trachea for stridor
3. Promote patent airway - HOB 30 degrees elevated, oral & sterile suctioni supplies & emergency trach tray (trach kit and IV calcium gluconate or CaCl)at bedside, maintain humidification if ordered, deep breathing exercise hourly; cough if needed to clear secretions
4.Prevent tetany by early identification of hypocalcemia
5. Maintain patent IV site
6. Assess for laryngeal nerve damage noting ability to speak loudly, quality and tone of voice