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31 Cards in this Set

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anemia
a manifestation of a pathologic process characterized by a reduction below normal in the number of erythrocytes, quantity of hemoglobin, and/or the volume of packed red cells (hematocrit) in the blood
aplastic anemia
a disease in which the patient has peripheral blood pancytopenia (decrease of all blood cell types) and hypocellular bone marrow
autologous
in transplantation, denotes removal of the patient's own tissue and the giving back of the tissue to that person
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
a serious bleeding disorder resulting from abnormally initiated and accelerated clotting
hemachromatosis
an autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and, as a result, increased tissue iron deposition
hemolytic anemia
an anemia caused by destruction of RBCs at a rate that exceeds production
hemophilia
hereditary bleeding disorders caused by defective or deficient clotting factors; classic hemophilia A is a sex-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by deficient factor VIII; hemophilia B is a deficiency of factor IX
hepatomegaly
an abnormal enlargement of the liver
induction therapy
the initial, aggressive stage of cancer treatment that attempts to destroy malignant cells and bring about a remission
iron-deficiency anemia
anemia caused by inadequate iron for hemoglobin production
leukapharesis
a process by which blood is withdrawn from a vein, white blood cells are selectively removed, and the remaining blood is reinfused into the donor
leukemia
general term used to describe a group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow, lymph system, and spleen
lymphadenopathy
enlargement of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels
lymphoblasts
large, immature cells that normally develop into lymphocytes
lymphocytic leukemia
a defect in proliferation and maturation of lymphocytes
megaloblastic anemias
a group of disorders caused by impaired DNA synthesis and characterized by the presence of large red blood cells
multiple myeloma
a condition in which neoplastic plasma cells infiltrate the bone marrow and destroy bone
myeloblasts
large, immature cells that normally develop into granulocytes
myelodysplastic syndrome
a group of related hematologic disorders characterized by a change in the quantity and quality of bone marrow elements
myelogenous leukemia
a defect in proliferation and maturation of granulocytes
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms involving lymphoid tissue
pernicious anemia
a type of megaloblastic anemia resulting from inadequate gastric secretion of intrinsic factor necessary for absorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12)
Philadelphia chromosome
a translocation of the long arm of chromosome 22 to chromosome 9 found in the abnormal myeloblasts, erythroblasts, and megakaryoblasts of 90% of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia
polycythemia
the production and presence of increased numbers of red blood cells
sickle cell crisis
an exacerbation of sickle cell anemia when sickle cell hemoglobin assumes various crescent or sickle shapes, occluding small blood vessels
sickle cell disease
a group of inherited, autosomal recessive disorders characterized by the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte
sickle cell hemoglobin
abnormal hemoglobin that causes development of deformed crescent-shaped red blood cells when oxygen tension is lowered
sickle cell trait
a heterozygous state in which an individual has only one sickle cell gene paired with a normal hemoglobin gene
splenomegaly
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
thalassemia
an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of inadequate production of normal hemoglobin
thrombocytopenia
a reduction of the platelet count below the normal range of 150,000 to 400,000/µl (150 to 400 × 109/L)