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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
spontaneous generation of disease (illness caused by bad thoughts)
proposed disease is caused by small organisms
found microbes using his microscope
debunked spontaneous generation (maggots formed because of flies)
created smallpox vaccine using cowpox
discovered cells
showed most illness is caused by doctors (proposed antiseptics)
fathered epidemiology (path disease takes)
developed sterilization techniques for foods
developed antiseptics
koch's postulates for determining the cause of disease
Koch's Postulates
sick, sample, culture, inject, sick, sample, culture, reisolate same pathogen
invented petri dishes
discovered penicillin (worked w/ lysozyme, 1st antibiotic)
Watson and Cricket
finalized the structure of DNA
insulin synthesized by bacteria
HIV discovered
Asceptic Technique
1. sterilize innoculation loop (fire)
2. let it cool
3. take sample from stock
4. spread it on plate
5. sterilize
6. spread again
7. go back to 5
8. sterilize loop
BARRIER, continuous, tightly packed, slightly basic, dry
BARRIER, sticky material that flows to stomach (ph kills bac), pushed by cillia
BARRIER, contains cyanide to kill bacteria
BARRIER, flushes and kill bacteria
BARRIER, protects ends of fingers
aka humoral
very specific molecules that "glue" multiple pathogens together, renders them useless (2 wks to make new ones)
chemical that excites immune cells
disrupts viral replication
very complex (20 chemicals in body), seperate do nothing but together bore holes in pathogens, short term only
CELL, consumes ANYTHING not self
Langerhans cells
can behave as macrophages, reside in throat,urinary and sexual tracts
helper T cell
take the antigen from macrophage to the B-cell
cytotoxic T-cells
kills anything asking to be killed
if antigen been seen, antibodies produce quickly
memory B-cell
creates antibodies for the antigen (2 wks)
bacteria differentiation
bacillus (rod-like), coccus(spherical), spirillus (infinity symbol)
Gram's Stain G+
purple, cell wall is large, peptidoglycan absorbs the stain
Gram's Stain G-
pink, cell wall thin, stain bounces off
strep (growth pattern)
forms chain
staph (growth pattern)
just dots on petri dish
odd-shaped colony
circle-shaped colony
covers the plate
convex (side view growth)
semicircular (water droplet)
raised (side view growth)
flat on plate
Heat Fix
1. drop H2O
2. add bacteria
3. wave in flame to evaporate H2O
stain process
1. crystal violet(30s)
2. rinse with water(1m)
3. Iodine(1m)
4. Rinse w/ water
5. rinse w/ alcohol(1m)
6. rinse w/ water
7. safranin(pink)
8. rinse w/ water
9. blot dry
Salmonella typhi (G- rod)
-ubiquitous, poultry, reptiles, livestock, domestic animals, birds, humans
- ingestion of food/water
Salmonella typhi
Typhoid Fever (enteric fever)
Typhoid Fever symptoms
(10-14 incubation), fever intermitant & increase in intensity. headache, myalgias(muscle pains), malaise(overall bad feeling), anorexia(appetite loss)
Typhoid Fever morality rate
5% (infants, elderly, immuno-compromised)
Typhoid Fever treatment
resolves spontaneously, antibiotics
Yersinia pestis (G- rod)
- epi
lives on rats (vector) fleas, goes to humans through bites
Yersinia pestis disease
Bubonic plague
Pneumonic plague
bubonic plague symptoms
7 day incub, very high fever, painful bubos(lymphnodes) pus-filled lesions
bubonic plague mortality
killed 25 million people in 14th century
- most devastating disease in history
-today, w/o treatment 75%
Pneumonic Plague
in lungs, 2-3 day incubation. causes lung failure, mortality 90% w/o meds, treatment: antibiotics
Bordetella pertusis (G- rod)

extremely small aerobic coccabacilli(looks round)

only found in humans
Bordetella pertusis disease
whooping cough
Whooping Cough symptoms
resembles a cold, makes mucous thick, "whooping" sound in cough, serious sneezing, malaise,anorexia, low fever, very contagious
Whooping Cough 1st stage
Catarrhal stage
sneezing and low-grade fever, most contagious stage
Whooping cough 2nd stage
paroxysmal stage
cough up throat cells (trying remove mucous)
whooping sound
whooping cough 3rd stage
convalascent stage
symptoms disappear
secondary problems - pneumonia, seizures, encephalopathy
whooping cough treatment
close medical care, antibiotics only work during 1st stage, vaccinations are important
Shigella dysenteriae
day care centers, nursuries, custodial institutions
highly common
transmitted person-to-person, fecal-oral route, primarily
caused my hand transfer
Shigella dysenteriae illness
Dysentary symptoms
abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, bloody stool
1-3 incub
bac colonize intestine and physically damage it
bloody/pus in stool
dysentary treatment
let it pass, stay hydrated, water treatment, good hygiene, antibiotics help but time is important
Borrelia bergdofii (g- rod)
transferred by ticks (deer)
very difficult to diagnose
Borrelia bergdofii illness
lyme disease
lyme disease symptoms
30+ incub
skin lesions around the bite
eventually disappear
lyme disease symptoms early
-malaise, severe fatigue, headache, fever, chills
-lasts about 4 wks, intermittant for 2-5 years
-10/15% patients can get heart blockage
- menningitis, encephalitis, nerve damage (peripheral)
lyme disease treatment
antibiotics for long time
Vibrio cholerae
aerobic or anaerobic
found in ponds, crustaceans
Vibrio cholerae disease
cholera (need large amount to get sick)
caused by enterotoxins
many people are asymptomatic
10-20% severe symptoms
Cholera symptoms
severe vomiting and diarrhea(rice water stool=water/mucous)
mort: 60% w/o meds
cholera treatment
IV to hydrate
spontaneously resolves
Bacillus anthracis
ubiquitous, soil, generally w/ livestock, spore former
bacillus anthracis disease
-most anthrax(95%) is skin and obtained through soil contact
cutaneous anthrax
painless pimple, can progress into an ulcer(depression in skin), then to a necrotic ulcer(dead skin, black)
mort: <2%
inhaled antrax
initially resembles viral infection
progresses rapidly in diffused pulmonary problems
end in respiratory failure
mort: 99% w/o, 85% w/
isn't suspected until too late
gastrointestinal antrax
very rare
mesentaric adenopathy (capillaries are destroyed)
hemorrhaging in intestines
high mortality
Bacillus cereus (g+ rod)
soil, ubiquitous
makes a toxin that causes illness
bacillus cereus illness
gastroenteritus (stomach problems)
vomiting disease and diarrheal disease
bacillus cereus
vomiting disease
emetic form: from contaminated rice
1-6 hr incub
24h illness
vomiting, nausea, ab cramps
bacillus cereus
diarrheal disease
tainted meat/veggie
longer incub required
toxin is heat liable(destroys it)
diarrhea, nausea, ab cramps
bacillus cereus treatment
refrigerate food
Corynebacterium diphteriae (g+)
found in low economic populations where vaccines aren't available
Corynebacterium diphteriae illness
diphtheria symptoms
-mild respiratory at first
-sore throat, light fever, membrane on throat/tonsils
-attached to host cells, removal of membrane causes hemorrhaging
-when you recover, cough it up
diphtheria treatment
penicillin, active immunity prevents disease
g+ rods, strict anaerobe(O2 kills it), spore formers
Clostridium perfringes
- main disease causing organism
- normal inhabitant of animal digestive tract
clostridium perfringes illness
gas gangrene, food poisoning, enteric necrosis
Gas Gangrene symptoms
life threatening
sym:intense pain, muscle necrosis, shock, death is rapid (2days)
Gas Gangrene treatment
amputation, physical removal(scrub), antibiotics
Food Poisoning
8-24h incub
cramps, watery diarrhea, no fever, vomiting
bad meat is common source
Enteric Necrosis symptoms
rare, acute killing of small intestines, ab pain, bloody diarrhea, shock
50% mortality rate
Enteric Necrosis treatment
surgical debridement(removal)
antiserum toward toxins
high dose penicillin
Clostridium botulinum
produces toxins(problem)
soil and water
toxins heat liable
Clostridium botulinum illness
1. food borne
2. wound
3. infantile
botulism food borne
-toxin causes paralysis b/c it blocks neurotransmitters permanently
-death caused by respiratory paralysis
-mort used to be 75%, currently 10%
botulism wound
same result as food borne but organism is in wound
botulism infantile
-babies eating honey
-organism in the honey, inhabit infants digestive tract
-treatment:ventilate patient, antigens towards toxin
clostridium tetanii
toxins cause problems
enter through fomite (stab)
generalized tetanus and localized tetanus
incub: 2wks
generalized tetanus
systemic (throughout body)
lockjaw (autonomic nervous system), drooling sweat, irritable, back pain
localized tetanus
stays in muscle at site
newborns, elderly
remove the wound
tetanus treatment