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60 Cards in this Set

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leukocytes in the stool of a patient with acute diarrhea suggest?
infection + invasive pathogen
diarrhea that continues after fasting?
secretory
#1 cause of travelers diarrhea?
E.Coli
drug of choice for shigella?
cipro
best prophylaxsis for traveler's diarrhea?
pepto
what agent causes botulism?
c.diff
MC cause of giardia?
standing/contaminated water
how do you dx pinworms?
scotch tape test (graham's )
what is a major cause of osmotic diarrhea?
lactose intolerance
what is the MC organism to cause antibiotic related colitis?
C.Diff
what is the pathophysiology of thalassemias?
hemolytic anemia associated with altered alpha and beta globulin chains
which type of anemia is MC to see in children?
iron deficiency anemia due to dietary deficiency
a serum level for _______ is considered to be most closely related to iron stores in the liver and bone marrow?
ferretin
65 y/o p presents with fatigue, numbness in legs, skin pale and icteric, angular chelitis, low Hbg. what is most likely problem?
cobalamin deficiency
p presents with: h/o chron's, anorexia,malaise, HTN, chelitis, parasthesias in feet, LABS: megaloblastic anemia, pancytopenia, reticulocyte count <2%. your dx would most likely be?
pernicious anemia
a state of anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency; usually due to:
Insufficient dietary vitamin B12 intake,
Autoimmune disorders where antibodies are directed against intrinsic factor or parietal cells that produce it.
Atrophic Gastritis in the elderly, leading to cell damage in stomach (reducing intrinsic factor)
pernicious anemia
what test can be used to distinguish between pernicious anemia, vitamin B12 malabsorption, and vitamin B12 deficiency.
schilling test
hemoglobinopathy is a characteristic of which type of anemia?
thalassemia
p presents with H/O gastritis, and is found to have megaloblastic anemia. giben this info, what deficiency might she have?
cobalamin
this test is used in the detection of antibodies for the diagnosis of immune-mediated haemolytic anaemias.
coombs test
you suspect your p has an immune mediated hemolytic anemia. what test can you perform to confirm this?
Coombs test
what is the recommended treatment for immune mediated hemolysis?
corticosteroids
p presents with a microcytic anemia. what test can you perform to differentiate between a thalassemia vs an iron def. anemia?
electrophoresis
heat intolerance, palpitations, diarrhea, lid lag, are all physical findings suggestive of?
hyperthyroid
what is the most common thyroid hormone def?
hashimotos
where are catecholamines produced?
adrenal gland
what is the most important phagocytic cell of the immune system?
neutrophil
leukemia: a malignant neoplasm arises from what type of stem cells?
myeloid
what would you do for an asymptomatic patient with thrombocytopenia?
repeat the CBC
at what level of plt's would your patient have petechia, echymosis and spontaneous bleeds?
25-50K
which leukemia is characterized by a chronic blast phase that evolves into an acute blast phase?
CML
child presents with H/H of 8/25, plt 25K and WBC 220. most likely has?
ALL
selecitve indications for splenectomy, ITP in children can resolve with out therapy, treatment may involve corticoststeroids or IVIG describe the approach for treatment for what disease?
ITP
what percentage of gastric ulcers are malignant?
3-5%
you are currently treating a patient for PUD and have already treated and cleared H.Pylori. however the ulcers have failed to heal. what should your next step be?
measure serum gastrin levels
what is the MC cause of acute gastritis?
NSAIDS
what can autoimmune gastritis lead to?
pernicious anemia
what are the top 3 causes of PUD?
h. pylori
NSAIDS
hypersecretion states (ZE syn)
what is the number one wa to rule out and upper GI bleed?
NG aspirate
p presents with cramping periumbilical to epigastric abdominal pain. started 5 hours ago. N/V/anorexia. no diarrhea. afebrile. most likely dx?
acute, early appy
>55 y/o presents with sudden onset, LLQ pain. what should be first on your dx?
diverticulitis
what is the best screening test for colorectal cancer?
flex sig
the following are indicitive of what pathology:
LLQ pain/suprapubic
usually involves sigmoid colon
UA may reflect cystitis
CT scan can help dx
diverticulitis
what is the diagnostic tool for dx of hemorrhoids?
sigmoidoscopy
segmental skip lesions
chron's
apple core lesion?
colon carcinoma
cobblestone pattern?
chron's disease
toxic megacolon
UC
can affect mouth to anus?
UC
lead pipe" loss of haustrations?
UC
"pain our of proportion to exam"
ischemic colitis
alternating diarrhea and constipation?
irritable bowel syndrome
usually follows the descent of the gonads and is the MC cause of strangulated hernias?
indirect inguinal hernia
usually acquired later in life and is the result of weak lateral wall fascia?
direct inguinal hernia
what is the duke's classification used for?
dx of colorectal ca
this sign that is specific for a pancreatitis shows discoloration of the flanks?
grey turner sign
age > 55
serum LDH >350
blood glucose > 200
are criteria for what?
Ranson's criteria to be checked upon admission for acute pancreatitis
what is the rec screening procedure for individuals at high risk for developing colon cancer?
DRE
large, tender, irreducible hernia + n/v. tympany and decreased bowel sounds is indicitive of?
strangulated hernia
what is the best diagnostic study to confirm dx of gallbladder disease?
US of gallbladder