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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sympathetic division outflow
thoracolumbar region of spinal cord
sympathetic division pregang neuron length
short
sympathetic division postgang neuron length
long
sympathetic division innervation of adrenal gland
direct innervation (passes through the ganglia but there is no synapse)
parasympathetic division outflow
cranio-sacral region of the spinal cord
parasympathetic division pregang neuron length
long
parasympathetic division postgang neuron length
short
parasympathetic neurons do not innervate (4)
adrenal medulla
kidney
pilomotor muscle
sweat gland
definition of neurotransmitter
endogenous chemical entities that facilitate the transmission of electrical (nerve) impulses
in general, NTs are synthesized, stored, released, and inactivated ________ but effects are ____ ________
locally
far reaching
examples of NTs
acetylcholine
monoamines
amino acids
peptides
monoamine NTs
epinephrine
norepinephrine
serotonine
amino acid NTs
glycine
GABA
GABA stands for
gamma amino butyric acid
peptide NTs
substance P
enkephaline
endorphins
ionotropic effect
when a receptor is also an ion channel
immediate effect
metabotropic effect
when a receptor produces a 2nd messenger
lag time
cholinergic neurons
neurons that release acetylcholine
ACh is the neurotransmitter of
all pregang fibers of symp & para
all postgang of para
adrenal medulla
somatic NS
few postgang of symp (sweat & salivary glands)
some CNS neurons
role of ACh in CNS (4)
cognition
memory
behaviour
coordination of movement
role of ACh in eyes
constiction of pupils (miosis) ~ near vision
role of ACh in lungs & bronchioles
incr constriction of bronchioles
incr secretion from the tracheobronchial mucosa
role of ACh in GIT
incr contraction & scretions of stomach (incr digestion)
incr motility of intestine (parastaltic waves)
role of ACh in bladder
contraction ~ micturition
contraction of detrussor muscle, relaxation of sphincter & trigone muscles
role of ACh in exocrine glands
incr secretions of salivary, sweat, & lacrymal glands
role of ACh in heart
decr rate of contraction (- chronotropic)
decr force of contraction (- ionotropic)
role of ACh in blood vessels
relaxation of smooth muscles of blood vessels - vasodilation
what kind of receptor does acetylcholine bind to?
cholinergic receptors
what are the 2 types of cholinergic receptors
nicotinic
muscarinic
where is nicotine found?
tobacco
where is muscarine found?
poisonous mushroom ~ amanita muscarina
what 2 rings does nicotine have in its structure?
pyridine
pyrrolidine
what are nicotine receptors coupled to?
ion channels
a nicotinic receptor has how many subunits? where does ACh bind?
5 subunits - 2 alpha, 1 beta, 1 gamma, 1 delta
ACh binds to alpha subunit
where are 3 places that nicotinic receptors are located
neuromuscular junction
autonomic ganglia
CNS
what is myasthenia gravis?
an autoimmune disease
-muscle weakness, drooping eyelids
-lethargy
-possible paralysis
nicotinic receptors at NMJ destroyed by antibodies
what do muscle relaxants target
nictonic receptors at NMJ
a blockade of the autonomic ganglia can cause:
sever hypotension
what are the 2 nicotinic receptor subtypes
N1 & N2 receptors
N1 nicotinic receptors (location, blocked by?)
located at NMJ
blocked by: decamethonium, d-tubocurarine, succinylcholine
N2 nicotinic receptors (location, blocked by?)
located at autonomic ganglia
blocked by: hexamethonium
which receptor mediates most of ACh responses
muscarinic
action of ACh on muscarinic receptors (6)
stimulates secretions of salivary & sweat glands
stimulates secretions & contraction of gut
constricts airways of respiratory tract
decreases contraction of heart
relaxes smooth muscles of blood vessels
where are muscarinic receptors located
in CNS & PNS
structure of muscarinic receptors
7 transmembrane helical protein domains
-extracellular domains
-intracelluar domains
g-protein coupled receptors
muscarinic receptors
g-protein: family of proteins
bind to guanine nucleotides
M1 muscarinic receptor location
mostly in CNS
also in GIT
M2 muscarinic receptor location
mostly in the heart
M3 muscarinic receptor location
exocrine glands & smooth muscle
M4 muscarinic receptor location
tracheal smooth muscle
stimulation of phospholipase C
M1, M3, M5
inhibition of adenylate cyclaase
M2, M4
stereochemistry of ACh to bind at nicotinic receptor
anti conformation - groups farthest apart
stereochemsitry of ACh to bind at muscarinic receptor
gauche conformation - groups near eachother
cholinergic agonist
agent that mimics the action of ACh at muscarinic receptors
cholinergic antagonist
agent that blocks the action of ACh at muscarinic receptors
cholinergic agonists AKA
parasympathomimetics
muscarinic agonists
ACh agonists
cholinergic antagonists AKA
parasympatholytics
anticholinergics
muscarinic antagonists
cholinergic blockers
ACh antagonists
ganglionic blocker
agent that binds & inhibits the nicotinic-receptor mediated response of ACh at the autonomic ganglia
skeletal muscle relaxants
agents that bind & inhibit the nicotinic-receptor mediated response of ACh at the NMJ
what form of ACh is active
stored ACh (when not stored, enzymes will break down)
sources of ACh
most made from recycled choline
some made from serine
ACh is stored in vessels until:
an action potential is received
what causes the storage vesicle to fuse to the presynaptic membrane?
Ca that diffuses inward after the action potential makes the membrane more permeable
ACh is inactivated by:
AChE (acteylcholine esterase)
BuChE (butyrylcholine esterase)
what are the 2 ways for the reuptake of choline
high affinity reuptake
low affinity reuptake
high affinity reuptake
major mode
energy dependent
blocked by hemicholinium
low affinity reuptake
not considered important
not energy dependent
likely occurs by diffusion
AChE
major mode of inactivation
found in and around neurons
specific for ACh & propionylcholine
BuChE
minor mode of inactivation
found in plasma
broad substrate range