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34 Cards in this Set

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Epinephrine, norepinephrine, Dopamine are autonomic mediators/neurotransmitters known as _____.
-catecholamines
aka adrenalin
epinephrine
secreted directly into the blood by the adrenal medulla
epinephrine
In fight or flight, increased sympathetic tone to the adrenal medulla causes it to squirt ____ into the blood.
epinephrine
Once in the blood, epinephrine has access to all tissues but its effect on each tissue is dependent on:
-the (predominant) adrenergic receptor in that tissue
-the specific effect caused by agonism of that particular receptor in that particular tissue
Epinephrine on Beta 1 receptors in the heart cause:
-increased heart rate and contractility
Epinephrine on Beta 2 receptors in the bronchioles cause:
-bronchiolar dilation
Epinephrine on Beta 2 receptors in skeletal muscle arterioles cause:
-vasodilation
Epinephrine on Alpha 1 receptors in skin and GI tract vessels cause:
-vasoconstriction
Secreted directly into the blood by the adrenal medulla but equals less than 20% of its output
Norepinephrine
Under most conditions, NE released from the adrenal medulla is NOT so important as its release from ______.
-sympathetic nerve terminals
The only neurotransmitter released by sympathetic nerve endings (with two clinically insignificant exceptions)
-norepinephrine
Autonomic Storm
-during fight or flight, increased sympathetic tone goes not only to the adrenal medulla but everywhere else as well
The effect of NE on each tissue is dependent on:
-the (predominant) adrenergic receptor in that tissue
-the specific effect cause by agonism of that particular receptor in that particular tissue
NE on Beta 1 receptors in the heart cause:
-increased heart rate and contractility
NE on Beta 2 receptors in the bronchioles causes:
-bronchiolar dilation
NE on Beta 2 receptors in the kidney causes:
-renin secretion
NE on Alpha 1 receptors in skeletal muscle arterioles causes:
-vasoconstriction
NE on Alpha 1 receptors in skin, GI tract and kidney vessels causes:
-vasoconstriction
NE on Alpha 2 receptors in vasomotor center causes:
-decreased sympathetic outflow from cord
Blushing
-decreased sympathetic activity to vessels of head, neck, shoulders, upper chest
-permits vasodilation causing redness
Blanching
-increased sympathetic activity to vessels
-causes vasoconstriction and whiteness
-opposite of blushing
Cold Ambient Temperature
-increased sympathetic tone to cutaneous vessels
-causing cutaneous vasoconstriction to conserve heat
-blanching
-reverse is also true
Increased temperature of blood
-perfusing the anterior hypothalamus
-decreased sympathetic tone to cutaneous vessels
-causing cutaneous vasodilation to dissipate heat
During exercise
-increased sympathetic tone to cutaneous vessels
-initial cutaneous vasoconstriction
-shunts blood away from skin to support heart and skeletal muscles
-as body temp. increases, perfusion of blood to anterior hypothalamus overrides initial effect
-permits cutaneous vasodilation in order to dissipate heat
Skeletal muscle arterioles at rest are under _____ control but during exercise, ____ takes over leading to ____.
-myogenic and sympathetic
-metabolic control (autoregulation)
[ie. increased pCO2]
-vasodilation
Brain vasculature is almost entirely controlled by ____.
-autoregulation (metabolic control)
T/F: Sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers in brain parenchyma are sparse and of little effect.
-true
Coronary vasculature is innervated by ____ fibers that release _____ onto _____.
-sympathetic
-NE
-alpha 1, beta 1 &/or beta 2 receptors
Coronary arteries are mainly under ____ control.
-autoregulatory (metabolic) like skeletal muscles and brain vessels
-ie. when the heart muscle works harder, its arterioles dilate to supply more blood
Which nervous system has little or no influence on blood vessels of the heart?
-parasympathetic
Vasovagal Syncope
-sudden, transient loss of consciousness (fainting)
The prototype situation in which vasovagal syncope occurs is ____. Why?
-emotional surprise or shock
-event interpreted by limbic system as shocking
Limbic System
-widely distributed and large collective mass of brain tissue which has neurologic connections to the vasomotor center in the medulla.