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32 Cards in this Set

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what are the four categories involved in the organization of the respiratory system?
1) lungs and muscle pump, 2) gas exchange unit, 3) circulatory system and blood and 4) regulation of ventilation and perfusion.
what are the three forms of control that regulate ventilation and perfusion?
neuronal, hormonal and local control
what is internal respiration?
mitochondria = glucose + O2 --> CO2 + H20 + H + heat + ATP
what is external respiration?
O2 travels from the atmosphere to the lungs to the heart and vasculature to the tissues and then CO2 flows in the opposite direction depositing in the atmosphere.
what are the two physiological importances of gas exchange?
maintain O2 delivery to tissues (prevent hypoxia) and elimination of CO2 (prevent hypercapnia/acidosis)
What type of pattern is exhibited in the movement of gas in the body?
convection (brain) --> diffusion (pulmonary) --> convection (internal) --> diffusion (tissue)
ie: bulk flow, diffusion, bulk flow, diffusion.
The primary symbols used in respiratory physiology are F, P, Q, Q(dot), R, S, V, and V(dot). what does each one stand for?
F- fractional concentration in dry gas
P- pressure or partial pressure
Q- volume of blood
Q(dot)- volume of blood per unit time
R- respiratory exchange ratio
S- saturation of Hb with O2
V- volume of gas
V(dot)- volume of gas per unit time.
what are the secondary symbols used for the gas phase? (IDEAL TB)
A- Alveolar
B-Barometric
D- dead space
E- expired
I- inspired
L- lung
T- tidal
what are the secondary symbols used for the blood phase? (CCAVVI)
a- arterial
c- capillary
c'- end-capillary
i- ideal
v- venous
v(line)- mixed venous
what are static mechanics?
when volume is not changing, no air flow.
the lung consists of 6 structures, what are they?
airways, lung parenchyma, interstitial matrix, alveolar surfaces and pulmonary circulation
the chest wall consists of 4 structures, what are they?
structures outside of the lung that move the rib cage, diaphragm, abdominal cavity and anterior abdominal muscles.
what ultimately determines lung volume?
interaction of lung and chest wall
what is the static tendency of lungs?
to collapse due to an inward elastic recoil (for any lung volume).
what is the static tendency of the chest wall?
to expand due to an outward elastic recoil.
why is Ppl negative?
because the two membranes (visceral and parietal pleura) are pulling away from each other.
What is the formula for calculating alveolar pressure?
elastic recoil pressure + pleural pressure. ie (Pel + Ppl)
what is Pressure across the lung called? how is it calculated?
transpulmonary pressure (Pl)
alveolar pressure (Pa) - pleural pressure (Ppl)
how do you calculate the pressure across the chest wall?
Pw= Ppl - Pb
how do you calculate the pressure for respiratory system?
Prs= PL + Pw
ultimately, based on the formulas used to determined various pressures, what is PL equivalent to?
Pel
PL is lung ______ pressure; Pel is lung _______ pressure.
distending; collapsing
what are the two ways to correct a pneumothroax?
1) add positive pressure in airway and 2) remove air from pleural space to re-create the negative intrapleural pressure
what are the two ways that Vital capacity can be calculated?
VC= IRV + Vt + ERV or
VC= IC + ERV
what are the two ways that Total lung capacity can be calculated?
TLC= VC + RV or
TLC= IC + FRC
how do you calculate Functional residual capacity?
FRC+ ERV + RV
define vital capacity.
maximum volume of gas that can be exchanged in a single breath
define total lung capacity.
maximum volume of gas that the lungs (and airways) can contain
define functional residual capacity.
volume of gas remaining in the lings (and airways) at the end of a normal exhalation
define inspiratory capacity.
is the volume between the end of exhalation of a tidal breath and the total lung capacity
In and obstructive disease like emphysema, what is increased?
Residual volume.
In a restrictive disease like pulmonary fibrosis, what is decreased?
Total lung capacity