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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the purpose of SITE ANALYSIS?
"The purpose of site analysis is to understand the character of a given site." (47)
What information is usally included in a SITE ANALYSIS?
Information gathered for a SITE ANALYSIS usually includes:
"utility availability
noise sources
solar access
traffic and pedestrian patterns
climate..." (47)
What is the essence of SITE ANALYSIS?
The essence of site analysis is "Understanding what resources are available for inclusion in a design solution, and what natural forces are potential problems to be mitigated by design..." (47)
What is CLIMATE?
CLIMATE "is a long-term statistically derived picture of weather. Weather is what happened today or yesterday, while climate is what happened over the past 10, 15 or 20 years." (47)
What is BIOCLIMATIC design?
BIOCLIMATIC design is a set of tools for analyzing climates which links climate and comfort. (47)
A MICROCLIMATE is a climate at a particular site which is different than what is representative of the entire region. (49)
What site characteristics can influence a MICROCLIMATE?
Site characteristics that can influence a MICROCLIMATE are:
"soil type
ground surface
water bodies/flows
human effects (heat, noise, etc.)" (49)
What (macro)climate characteristics can influence a MICROCLIMATE?
(macro)climate characteristics that can influence a MICROCLIMATE are:
Air temperature
Air motion
Air quality" (49)
What is a HEAT ISLAND?
A HEAT ISLAND is an orban area which produces significantly more heat than the surrounding environment. (50)
What is the most obvious reason for a city's relative year-round warmth?
"The most obvious reason for a city's relative year-round warmth is its concentration of heat sources: the air conditioners, furnaces and electric lighting in buildings and the internal combustion engines in cars." (50)
Why is it important to do vertical as well as horizontal site analysis?
"Conditions of privacy and accessibility, view, heat, light, aire motion, sound, and water all change with vertical distance from the surface." (54)
Do darker or lighter colored surfaces produce more internal daylighting?
"Lighter-colored surfaces produce more internal daylighting..." (57)
Which orientation should be emphasized if one wishes to have less sun in the summer and more sun in the winter?
"The emphasis on a southern orientation calless attentiion to its useful characteristic or receiving more sun in the winter and less sun in the summer than any other orientation." (58)
At what angle is the sun's reflective intensity the greatest?
"The farther the sun's rays are from ... any surface, the more radiation is reflected, rather than absorbed...Thus, the intensity of reflection is greatest (and the transmission of solar gain is least when the sun's rays are nearly parallel to the surface." (64)
What is NOISE?
"Any sound that is unwanted becomes noise..." (64)
What are two characteristics of cities that contribute to increased noise and street level?
"Two characteristics of cities contribute to increased noise at street level:
hard suraces that reflect rather than absorb sound
parallel walls that intensify sound by interreflection rather than dissipating it." (67)
How can plants provide noise-reduction?
Plants "impact on measured sound levels may be slight, but visually softer surfaces reinforce a perception of acoustically softer environments...." (67)
"The greenhouse effect occurs because gases that block the outgoing flow of long-wave radiation (heat) from the Earth's surface are accumulating in the atmosphere." (67)
How can building designers combat the global warming trend?
Building designers "can influence (global warming) trends in several ways.
"...designing for greater energy conservation...
utilizing clean and renewable energy sources within buildings.
Specify(ing) materials and equipment that, through their manufacture or operation, lessen air pollution.
Selection of refrigeration equipment that uses environmentally friendly refrigerants
(specifying) insulation and upholstery products made with non-CFC blowing agents." (67)
How do buildings contribute to air pollution?
Buildings contribute to air pollution by:
"fuel combustion within,
the power plants that supply electricity,
the incinerators and landfills that receive waste from buildings...
Transportation that takes people to and from buildings..." (68)
Wind ultimately returns to ___ ________ ____ _______ after encountering an obstacle.
"Wind ultimately returns to its original flow pattern after encountering an obstacle." (69
What is a windbreak?
"Windbreaks are commonly used to protect outdoor areas; these can be fences or plants." (69)
What are some of the effects of windflow around buildings?
Some of the effects of windflow around buildings are:
a) bar effect
b) Venturi effect
c) Gas effect
d) Corner effect
e) Wake effect
What is the Bar effect?
The bar effect is "the downward spinning wind behind a building can reach 1.4 times the speed of the average wind." (69)
What is the Venturi effect?
The Venturi effect funels wind through a narrow opening, "wind speeds through the neck can reach 1.3 times the average..." (69)
What is the gap effect?
The gap effect occurs with wind coming through several gaps at the bottom of the structure. (72)
What is the Corner effect?
The corner effect takes place with higher buildings..."increased wind speed occur at the corners..." (70)
What is the Wake effect?
The wake effect is "increased wind speed and turbulence within the wake of buildings...can be expecially serious for towers at heights of 16 to 30 stories...wind speeds can reach 1.4 to 2.2 times the average." (71)
"Ventilation involves the provision of fresh air to interiors to replenish the oxygen used by people and to help carry away their by-products of carbon dioxide (CO2) and body odors." (73)
"Passive cooling (with outdoor air) replaces heated indoor air with cooler outdoor air." (73)
What is the thermal potential of groundwater?
"Groundwater has ... thermal potential as a heat sink, providing a place to discharge building heat in summer and providing heat from groundwater for winter building heating." (78)
What are the special site design implications of SNOW?
The special site design implications of snow are:
"...delays runoff
provides a blanket of thermal insulation,
absorbs sound,..
reflects more solar radiation than almost any other naturally occurring surface." (79)
What are some disadvantages of snow?
"Snow hampers the movement of external control devices such as awnings or thermal shutters,
can collect to excess on external light shelves,
can create disabling glare if it reflects low winter eye level." (79)
What are several roles played by plants on a building site?
...affect the absorptivity and emissivity of the Earth's surface,
they are part of both the food and water cycles; by day they turn carbon dioxide into oxygen; can provide organic matter suitable for building materials; people mark time both by growth and by change with the season." (79)
Why are plants of immediate practical value to building design?
"enhance privacy,
slow the winter wind,
reduce glare from strong daylight,
prevent summer sun from entering overheated buildings." (79)