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25 Cards in this Set
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Levels of Scientific Knowledge

1. Description
2. Prediction 3. Control 
Dimensional Qualities of Behavior

1. Repeatability
2. Temporal Locus 3. Temporal Extent 
Repeatability

Rate/Frequency

Repeatability/Temporal Duration

Celeration (how rates of response change over time)

Measure Based on Temporal Extent

Duration (per session, per occurrence,combined)

Measures Based on Temporal Locus

1.Response Latency
2. Interresponse Time (IRT) 
Derivative Measures

1. Percentage
2. TrialstoCriterion 
Definitional Measures

1. Topography
2. Magnitude 
Procedures for Measuring Behavior

1.Event Recording
2.Timing 3.Time Sampling 4.Permanent Products* 
Types of Time Sampling

1. WholeInterval Recording
2. Partial Interval Recording 3. Momentary Time Sampling 4. Planned Activity Check (PLACHECK) 
Indicators of Trustworthy Measurement

1. Validity (Yields data that are directly relevant to the phenomena measured and to the reason(s) for measuring it.)
2. Accuracy (The extent to which the observed value matches the true state, or true value, of the event as it exists in nature.) 3. Reliability (The extent to which the a measurement procedure yields the same value when brought into repeated contact with the same state of nature.) 
Threats to Measurement Validity

1. Measuring the Wrong Dimension of the Target Behavior
2. Measurement Artifacts from: A. Discontinuous measurement B. Insensitive and/or limited measurement scales C. Poorly scheduled measurement periods) 3. Indirect Measurement 
Threats to Measurement Accuracy and Reliability

1. Poorly Designed Measurement System
2. Inadequate Observer Training 3. Unintended Influences on Observers (expectations, reactivity) 
Free Operant

Behaviors that have discrete beginning and ending points, require minimal displacement of the organism in time and space, can be emitted at nearly any time, do not require much time for completion, and can be emitted over a wide range of response rates.

Advantages of Measurement by Permanent Product

1. The practitioner is free to do other tasks.
2. It facilitates data collection for interobserver agreement and treatment integrity. 3. It enables measurement of complex behaviors and multiple response classes. 
Determining Whether Measurement by Permanent Product Is Appropriate

1. Is real time measurement needed?
2. Can the behavior be measured by permanent product? 3. Will obtaining a contrived permanent product unduly affect the behavior? 4. How much will it cost to obtain and measure the permanent product? 
Indicators of Trustworthy Measurement

1. Validity  when data are directly relevant to the phenomenon measured and to the reason(s) for measuring it.
2. Accuracy  the extent to which the observed value, the quantitative label produced by measuring an event, matches the true state, or true value, of the event as it exists in nature. 3. Reliability  the extent to which the measurement procedure yields the same value when brought into repeated contact with the same state of nature (consistency). 
IntervalbyInterval IOA

An index of the agreement between observers for data obtained by interval recording or time sampling measurement; calculated for a given session or measurement period by comparing the two observers' recordings of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior in each observation interval and dividing the number of intervals of agreement by the total number of intervals and multiplying by 100 (also called PointtoPoint or Total Interval IOA).

Mean CountPerInterval IOA

The average percentage of agreement between the counts reported by two observers in a measurement period comprised of a series of smaller counting times; a more conservative measure of IOA than total count IOA.

Mean DurationPerOccurrence IOA

An IOA index for duration per occurrence data; also a more conservative and usually more meaningful assessment of IOA for total duration data calculated for a given session or measurement period by computing the average percentage of agreement of the durations reported by two observers for each occurrence of the target behavior.

ScoredInterval IOA

An interobserver agreement index based only on the intervals in which either observer recorded the occurrence of the behavior; calculated by dividing the number of intervals in which the two observers agreed that the behavior occurred by the number of intervals in which either or both observers recorded the occurrence of the behavior and multiplying by 100. Recommended as a measure for behaviors that occur at low rates.

Total Count IOA

The simplest indicator of IOA for event recording data; based on comparing the total count recorded by each observer per measurement period; calculated by dividing the smaller of the two observers' counts by the larger count and multiplying by 100.

Total Duration IOA

A relevant index of IOA for total duration measurement; computed by dividing the smaller of the two durations reported by the observers by the longest duration and multiplying by 100.

TrialbyTrial IOA

An IOA index for discrete trial data based on comparing the observers' counts (01)on a trialbytrial, or itembyitem, basis; yields a more conservative and meaningful index of IOA for discrete trial data than does total count IOA.

UnscoredInterval IOA

An interobserver agreement index based only on the intervals in which either observer recorded the nonoccurrence of the behavior; calculated by dividing the number of intervals in which the two observers agreed that the behavior did not occur by the number of intervals in which either or both observers recorded the nonoccurrence of the behavior and multiplying by 100. Recommended as a measure for behaviors that occur at high rates.
