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37 Cards in this Set

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What is a decrease in the frequency, volume, or ease of stool passage?
Constipation
What are 2 causes of constipation in regards to physical activity?
Inadequate exercise
Prolonged bedrest
What are 3 causes of constipation other than decrease physical activities?
Neurogenic abnormalities
Psychogenic disorders
Enemas
In the TX/ prevention of constipation how much fluid should a person consume?
6-8 glasses
What is Psyllium bhdrophilic mucolloid and methylcellulose?
Metamucil
What is a side effect of Metamucil?
Increased flatus
What is the mixture for Soapsuds Enema?
75ml per liter of water
What type of enema is a Soapsuds enema?
irritating
What is a collection of putty-like or hardened feces in the rectum or sigmoid colon?
Fecal impaction
What are two possible TX for a Fecal Impaction?
Digital break up or Dislodged by Sigmoidoscopy
What is a medical emergency caused by a complete or partial blockage of the small or large bowel lumen?
Intestinal Obstruction
Carcinoma is usually associated with what in an intestinal obstruction?
Large bowel obstruction
What usually results from a paralytic ileus and is the most common of all intestinal obstructions?
Nonmechanical obstruction
What is a hallmark sign of mechanical obstruction?
Distended abdomen
What type of pattern develops in a small bowel obstruction?
Stepladder pattern of alternating fluid gas levels
Most cases of Paralytic Ileus disappear spontaneously in how many days?
2-3 days
What is the 5 year survival rate in rectal cancer?
80%
What is the 5 year survival rate in colon cancer?
85%
Where does a greater incidence of colorectal cancer occur in regards to economic development?
Areas of high economic development (METROPOLITANS).
What is seen in 80% of pt.'s with portal HTN regardless of cause?
Splenomegaly
What is a reversible disease and the most common precursor of cirrhosis
Alcholic hepatitis
What is a DDX for Alcoholic hepatitis?
Cholecystitis
What is the definition of vomitting blood?
Hematemesis
What is the term for black tarry stool?
melena
What is the term for passing gross blood per rectum?
Hematochezia
What usually indicates a lower GI bleed?
Hematochezia
A pt that presents with a pulse rate > 110, bp less than 100 (or orthostatic drop of 16mmHg or more), oliguria, cold clammy extremities, and often mental status change, what is the possible DX?
Major blood loss from GI bleed
What bulk forming laxative is used to relieve constipation?
Metamucil
What is the sig for SS enema?
75ml of soap sol. per lt. of water
What is associated with large bowel obstruction and the cause of mechanical obstruction?
Carcinoma
What is the most common complaint in all types of bowel obstruction?
Hiccups
What drugs can cause an increased water content in stool?
Ducosate sodium or calcium (Surfak, Colace)
What are the functional causes of fecal impaction?
Bulk Laxative
Antacids
Residual barium from X-ray study
Low residue diet, starvation
Drug-induced colonic stasis
Prolonged bedrest and debility
Why must you order functional studies for a pt. w/ nausea and vomiting?
R/O other GI causes
This may be self induced or may occur involuntarily in situations perceived by the pt. to be anxiety inducing, threating or in some way distasteful?
Functional N/V
Pt. with a non-mechanical bowel obstructin such as paralytic ileus usually describes it how?
As diffuse abdominal discomfort, instead of colicky pain
This is used for visual inspection and photography of the colon up to the ileocecal valve and permitsaccess for biopsies of lesions?
Colonoscopy