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56 Cards in this Set

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What is a regular loss of rhythm, especially of the heart?
Arrhythmia
What is an irregular heart action caused by physiological or pathological disturbances in the discharge of cardiac impulses from the SA node or their transmission through conductile tissue of the heart?
Cardiac Arrhythmia
What is a cyclic increase in normal heart rate with inspiration and decrease with expiration?
Sinus Arrhythmia
What is a heart rate slower than 50bpm due to increased vagal influence on the normal pacemaker or organic disease of the sinus node?
Sinus Bradycardia
What is a rapid regular rhythm due to a constant well defined macroreentrant circuit in the right atrium?
Atrial Flutter
What is an intermittent, rapid, irregular atrial rhythm due to multiple reentrant wavelets?
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation
What are premature beats resulting from an abnormal electrical focus in the ventricles?
Ventricular Ectopic Beats (premature ventricular beats, premature ventricular contractions)
What do you have when the ECG shows one "QRS" for every "P" wave, but the "PR" interval is greater than normal?
First Degree Heart Block,
Atrioventricular Block
What is the generic term for several diseases in which the aterial wall becomes thickened and loses it's elasticity?
Arteriosclerosis
What major risk factors of heart desease are nonreversible?
Age
Sex
Family Hx
What increases the risk of peripheral artery Dz, CAD, Cerebrovascular Dz, and graft occlusion after reconstructive arterial surgery?
Smoking
What is the difference between MI Sx and Angina Sx in regards to time?
MI: 5-15min
Angina: <5min
Where do Emboli tend to lodge themselves?
At the bifurcation of major arteries
What generally occurs in an artery in which the lumen has narrowed due to arteriosclerotic changes in the arterial wall?
Acute Arterial Thrombosis
Acute Arterial Thrombosis is occasionally precipitated by a rupture of what?
Arteriosclerotic plaque blocking the lumen
What are the major types of shock?
Cardiogenic
Hypovolemic
Anaphylactic
Septic
What is angina pectoris that is usually secondary to large vessel spasm and is characterized by discomfort at rest and by ST segment elevation during the attack?
Prinzmental's Angina
(Variant Angina)
What results from disorders of the venous system, such as deep vein thrombophlebitis, trauma, and occlusion?
Secondary Varicose Veins
How are moderate varicose veins treated?
Antiembolism stockings or elastic bandages
Pain may be described as "sticking" in nature and worsens with deep breathing, coughing, or twisting of the upper body.
Pericarditis
What is the treatment for Pericarditis?
Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs
What controls the flow of freshly oxygenated blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle?
Mitral Valve
What controls the flow and direction of blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
Tricuspid valve
Individuals with this Dz are at risk for heart failure and for atrial fibrillation which in turn increases the risk of blood clot formation.
Tricuspid Valve Dz
This may be described as a "Stabbing or Burning" and is often quite variable in position and intensity from one episode to another.
Atypical Chest Px
What is the disposition for a Pt with atypical chest px?
MEDEVAC due to lack of diagnostic capability
What is chest px caused by myocardial ischemia?
Acute Angina
What is a condition in which the amount of oxygen the heart muscle requires exceeds the amount it receives?
Myocardial Ischemia
What medication is used in treating an episode of acute angina?
Nitroglycerine
What is px on dorsiflexion of the foot?
Homman's Sign
A positive Homman's sign is considered an unreliable sign for what?
Deep Vein Thrombophlebitis
This results from pericardial effusions and characterized by elevated interpericardial pressure (>15mm Hg)
Pericardial Tamponade
What medications are used to treat Pericardial Tamponade?
Analgesics (Aspirin, Codene, Meperdine, or Morphine)
This cardiac Dz causes swelling in the ankles.
Congestive Heart Failure
Severe pain in calf muscles that occurs during walking but subsides at rest due to inadequate blood supply.
Intermittent Claudication
This is a tear in the aortic intima through which blood surges into the aortic wall, stripping the media from the adventitia.
Dissecting Aortic Aneurysm
This is an inflammation of the inner lining of the heart muscle and more commonly the heart valves usually caused by bacteria.
Infective Endocarditis
What is the most common form of HTN (90-95% of cases)
Essential Hypertention
(Primary or Idiopathic)
Hypertensive emergencies require immediate reduction of BP within what amount of time to avoid the risk of serious morbidity or death?
One Hour
What drug is used to treat Hypertensive Emergencies?
Diazoxide I.V. with Furosemide I.V.
This is defined as the shock state resulting from a relative or absolute reduction in cardiac output due to factors other than inadequate intravascular volume.
Cardiogenic Shock
Shock associated with inadequate intravascular volume which produces diminished ventricular filling and reduced stroke volume.
Hypovolemic Shock
What suggests hemoconcentration due to loss of body fluids other than blood in hypovolemic shock?
A rising Hct and Hb
What is a shock in which there is a marked decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and consequent hypotention?
Distributive Shock
What should you give a Pt on first suspicion of anaphylactic shock?
Epinephrine 1:1000
The SS caused by significant hypotention and inadequate blood & oxygen flow to organs as the result of serious systemic infection.
Septic Shock
What is the more frequent cause of cardiac contusion outside of the ER setting?
Blunt Trauma
What drug is a potent vagolytic belladonna alkaloid and is used to accelerate the heart rate?
Atropine
What is a calcium channel blocking agent indicated for treatment of spontaneous coronary artery spasm presenting as Prinzmetal's Variant Angina?
Verapamil
What is indicated for correction of hemodynamic imbalances in shock syndrome due to MI, trauma, etc.
Dopamine
What is highly effective in the treatment of atrial fibrillation?
Digoxin
What is a Beta-adrenergic blocking agent used alone as a "Step 1" agent or in combination with other drugs?
Propanalol
What is a Class Ib antiarrhythmic agent given I.V. for acute management of ventricular arrhythmias that can complicate MI? (VEB's, VT)
Lidocaine
What is a narcotic analgesic indicated for relief of moderate to severe acute and chronic px?
Morphine
What is used for management of anxiety disorders or for the short term relief of the sx of anxiety?
Valium
What drugs can be given via ETT?
Epinephrine
Atropine
Lidocaine