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73 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 different types of Internet applications?
Web applications (ASP.NET, Web Forms, System.Web namespace)

Web services (ASP.NET, XML Web Services, System.Web.Services namespace)

Internet-enabled applications (Windows forms, HTML Help, WebBrowser control, System.Net namespace)

Peer-to-peer applications (Accessing the Internet, pluggable protocols, System.Net.Sockets namespace)
What are the four types of Internet applications?
Web applications. These provide content from a server to client machines over the Internet. Users view the Web application through a Web browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.

Web services. These components provide processing services from a server to other applications over the Internet.

Internet-enabled applications. These are stand-alone applications that incorporate aspects of the Internet to provide online registration, Help, updates, or other services to the user over the Internet.

Peer-to-peer applications. These are stand-alone applications that use the Internet to communicate with other users running their own instances of the application.
What is ASP.NET?
ASP.NET is the platform that you use to create Web applications and Web services that run under IIS.

ASP.NET is part of the .NET Framework and is made up of several different components.

Visual Studio .NET Web development tools. These include visual tools for designing Web pages and application templates, project management, and deployment tools for Web applications.

The System.Web namespaces. These are part of the .NET Framework, and include the programming classes that deal with Web-specific items such as HTTP requests and responses, browsers, and e-mail.

Server and HTML controls. These are the user-interface components that you use to gather information from and provide responses to users.
What are the 3 parts of a web application?
Content - Web Forms, HTML, images, audio, video, other data

Program logic - Executable files, scripts

Configuration - Web configuration file, Style sheets, IIS settings
What are different types of components that a web form can contain?
Server controls - TextBox, Label, Button, ListBox, DropDownList, DataGrid

HTML controls - Text area, Table, Image, Submit Button, Reset Button

Data controls - SqlConnection, SqlCommand, OleDbConnection, OleDbCommand, DataSet

System components - FileSystemWatcher, EventLog, MessageQueue
What is .NET Framework?
The .NET Framework is the new Microsoft programming platform for developing Windows and Web software.
What is .NET Framework made up of?
CLR - An execution engine called the common language runtime

A class library that provides core programming functions, such as those formerly available only through the Windows API, and application-level functions used for Web development (ASP.NET), data access (ADO.NET), security, and remote management
What are the different categories of classes in .NET Framework Class Library?
Common types
Data access
Debugging
File access
Network communication
Security
Web applications
Web services
Windows applications
XML data
How are .NET classes grouped?
The .NET classes are grouped by programming task into namespaces to help locate the class, methods, and properties.
Where is a Web application's executable stored in?
The Web application' s executable is stored in a .dll file called an assembly. Assemblies are compiled to an intermediate state, and the final compilation is done by the CLR just before running the application.
How are Web Forms similar to Windows forms?
They both can respond to events.
What type of web form file has extension .ascx?
Web user control - User controls that are built from other Web forms and server controls in Visual Studio .NET
What type of web form file has extension .xsd?
DataSet - Creates an XML schema with the DataSet classes
What is the sequence of event execution?
The validations controls are evaluated before the page is posted back to the server. When the page is posted back, the Page_Init and Page_Load events are handled, then cached events are handled, and finally the event that caused the post-back is processed.
What are the three options that IIS gives for how the server will run your Web application (boundaries?)
1. In-process with IIS (Inetinfo.exe). This option increases performance because all calls are made in-process; however, it offers no protection. If an application fails, it can corrupt memory and affect Inetinfo.exe, as well as other applications running in-process.

2. Pooled with other Web application processes in DLLHost.exe. This is the default option and it provides a balance between protection and performance. If an application fails, it can affect other applications in the pool, but it will not affect Inetinfo.exe.

3. Isolated in its own instance of DLLHost.exe. Isolated applications are protected from affecting or being affected by problems in other applications. However, calls to other applications must cross process boundaries, and this affects performance.
When does overloading or shadowing happen?
If a derived class defines a member with the same name, but a different parameter list, parameter type, or return type than the base member, the derived member either overloads or shadows the base member.
What is the difference between overloading and shadowing members?
A member overloads another member if the signature is not the same and the base member is still available.

A member shadows another member if the derived member replaces the base member.
How are members that can be overriden declared in the base class?
(VB.NET) / (C#)
Overridable / virtual
How do interfaces differ from the abstracts?
Interfaces are similar to abstract classes in that they both provide a template that you can use to create new classes.

The difference is that interfaces don't provide any implementation of class members, whereas abstract classes can implement members that then become common to all the classes derived from them.
List System.Web namespace hierarchy:
System.Web
System.Web.SessionState
System.Web.Services
System.Web.UI
System.Web.UI.WebControls
System.Web.UI.HTMLControls
System.Web.Caching
System.Web.Mail
System.Web.Security
What are the Properties and Methods of the Application Object?
Application
Context
Modules
Request
Response
Server
Session
User
What are the Properties and Methods of the Page Object?
Application
Cache
Controls
Request
Response
Server
Session
Trace
What are the Properties and Methods of the Request Object?
Browser
ClientCertificates
Cookies
Files
InputStream
What are the Properties and Methods of the Response Object?
Cache
Cookies
Output
What method of the Request Object reads and writes to the raw data sent in the request?
InputStream
What kind of data can be stored in the ViewState?
Because ViewState stores data on the page, it is limited to items that can be serialized.

If you want to store more complex items in ViewState, you must convert the items to and from a string.
List the Application Event Handlers:
Application_Start
Application_End
Application_BeginRequest
Application_EndRequest
Session_Start
Session_End
List the Web Form Events:
Page_Init
Page_Load
Page_PreRender
Page_Unload
Page_Error
Page_AbortTransaction
Page_CommitTransaction
Page_DataBinding
Page_Disposed
What are the 3 types of events?
1. Post-back events. These events cause the Web page to be sent back to the server for immediate processing. Post-back events affect perceived performance because they trigger a round trip to the server.

2. Cached events. These events are saved in the page' s view state to be processed when a post-back event occurs.

3. Validation events. These events are handled on the page without posting back or caching. The validation server controls use these types of events.
What are application boundaries?
Application boundaries affect the scope of data stored in Application state and they allow you to specify the process in which the server runs your application.
What is IIS used for (related to a Web Application?)
You use IIS to create root folders for your applications, set application boundaries, and determine the process in which IIS runs your application.
Describe namespaces.
Namespaces organize your code and provide access to code in the .NET Framework. To use a namespace from outside of your project, establish a reference to it using the References dialog box from the Project menu. Add an Imports (Visual Basic .NET) or using (Visual C#) statement to the source file to provide a shortcut for referring to members of the namespace in code.
What defines objects within a namespace?
Classes define objects within a namespace.
What is basing one class on another called?
Inheritance
Describe inheritance.
With inheritance, the base class provides its members to the derived class where they can be overridden, overloaded, or hidden.
What four objects provide access to most of the subordinate objects in a Web application?
Application, Page, Request, and Response objects
(System.Web and System.Web.UI namespaces)
Are ordinary variables defined in a Web form persistent?
No
How do you preserve volatile data between requests?
ASP.NET lets you save data items as query strings, cookies, ViewState, Session state, or Application state
What are the 5 access levels to classes?
VB.NET
Public, Protected, Friend, Protected Friend, and Private

C#
public, protected, internal, protected internal, and private.
What class methods are called when an object based on the class is created or destroyed?
VB.NET
New and Finalize methods

C#
Constructor methods have the same name as their class, and destructor methods use the class name preceded by a tilde (~).
What defines the member names and parameter lists for classes that use the inheritance?
Interfaces define the member names and parameter lists for classes that use the interface
What provides the items to be inherited by derived classes?
Abstract members provide the items to be inherited by classes derived from them.
What defines the member names and parameter lists for classes that use the inheritance?
Interfaces define the member names and parameter lists for classes that use the interface
What are the 6 Levels of Access for Classes and Modules?
(VB.NET) / (C#)
Public / public
Friend / internal
Protected / protected
Protected Friend / protected internal
Private / private
What level of access makes a class/module available to all members in the current class and in derived classes in the current project?
Protected Friend / protected internal
What is inheritance?
Inheritance is the process of basing one class on another
What is a base class (in inheritance?)
A base class provides methods, properties, and other members to a derived class.
What are the inheritance keywords?
(VB.NET) / (C#)
Inherits / derivedclass : baseclass
Base one class on another, inheriting members from the base class.

Overridable / virtual
Declare that a member of the base class can be overridden in a derived class.

Overrides / override
Declare that a member of a derived class overrides the member of the same name in the base class.

Shadows / new
Declare that a member of a derived class hides the member of the same name in the base class.

MustInherit / abstract
Declare that a class provides a template for derived classes. This type of class is called an abstract class, and it cannot be instantiated.

MustOverride / abstract
Declare that a member of a class provides a template for derived members. This type of member is called an abstract member and it cannot be invoked.

MyBase / base
Call a base class member from within the derived class.

Me / this
Call a member of the current instance of a class.

Interface / interface
Create an interface that defines the members a class must provide.

Implements/ classname : interfacename
Use an interface definition in a class.
Can you inherit from more than one base class in a single derived class definition?
You can't inherit from more than one base class in a single derived class definition
What is a class member's signature?
A member' s signature includes its name, parameter list, parameter types, and return type.
How/when is a derived class' member considered to be overriding the base class' member?
If the derived class defines a member with the same signature, the derived member overrides the base member.
What are the 3 types of server control events, listed in the order of occurance?
1. Validation events occur before the page is returned to the server.

2. Cached events are collected while the page is displayed, and then processed once the page sends a request to the server.

3. Post-back events cause the page to send a request to the server, but their event procedure is processed last in order of events handled.
Give three examples of how an ASP.NET Web application is different from a traditional Windows application.
ASP.NET Web application:
1. Client/server architecture
2. Executes/runs under common language runtime using managed code
3. User interface is displayed in an Internet browser using Web Forms

Unmanaged Windows application:
1. Local user architecture
2. Executes/runs under Windows using unmanaged code
3. User interface is displayed by the application using the Win32 API
What are the two main parts of the .NET Framework?
- The common language runtime (CLR)
- The .NET Framework class library
How do you restore the default window settings in Visual Studio .NET?
From the Tools menu, choose Options and then click Reset Window Layout.
Why doesn' t the Visual Studio .NET Code Editor automatically complete the following partial line of code (Visual C# users only)?

int intX = system.math
The namespace System.Math must be capitalized in Visual C# for IntelliSense to recognize the namespace.
When can' t you use ASP.NET to create a Web application?
When you are developing for non-Microsoft Windows Web servers, such as Linux/Apache.
Where does Visual Studio .NET store Web application projects?
Web application projects are stored in a new virtual folder for each project. The properties of that virtual folder determine where the files are physically stored. These properties can be viewed in IIS.
List the four major differences between Web and Windows applications.
1. Web forms cannot use the standard Windows controls. Instead, they use server controls, HTML controls, user controls, or custom controls created specially for Web forms.

2. Web applications are displayed in a browser. Windows applications display their own windows and have more control over how those windows are displayed.

3. Web forms are instantiated on the server, sent to the browser, and destroyed immediately. Windows forms are instantiated, exist for as long as needed, and are destroyed.

4. Web applications run on a server and are displayed remotely on clients. Windows applications run on the same machine they are displayed on.
Describe the life cycle of a Web application: When are Web forms instantiated and how long do they exist?
A Web application starts with the first request for a resource within the application' s boundaries. Web forms are instantiated when they are requested. They are processed by the server and are abandoned immedi­ately after the server sends its response to the client. A Web application ends after all client sessions end
How do you preserve persistent data, such as simple variables, in a Web application?
You can preserve data in state variables, such as ApplicationState, SessionState, or ViewState.
What determines the boundaries of a Web application?
IIS determines Web application boundaries by the structure of the appli­cation' s virtual folders. A Web application boundary starts in the folder containing the start page of the application and it ends at the last subordi­nate folder or when it encounters another start page in a subordinate folder.
How does the .NET Framework organize its classes?
The .NET Framework uses namespaces to organize its classes.
In Visual Basic .NET, what is difference between a class module and a code module?
Class modules are instantiated at run time to create objects that provide separate storage for variables and properties in each instance. Code mod­ules do not have instances, so any module-level variables they use are shared among calls to the module' s procedures.
In Visual C#, how do you declare a method to make it available without having to first instantiate an object from the class?
To create a method that can be called without instantiating an object, declare that method as static.
How do you call a member of a base class from within a derived class?
To refer to a member of a base class in Visual Basic .NET, use the MyBase keyword. To refer to a member of a base class in Visual C#, use the base keyword.
What are the four main objects used in Web application programming?
The four main objects in Web application programming are the Application, Page, Request, and Response objects.
Where would you save the following data items so that they persist between requests to a Web form?
1. A control created at run time
Save controls created at run time in the Page object' s ViewState.

2. An object that provides services to all users
Save objects that provide services to all users in the Application state.

3. User preferences
Save user preferences in SessionState.
What does a Web application use to present the User Interface (UI) and how?
Web applications use Web forms to create a user interface that is presented through an Internet browser on the user' s computer.
What resides and runs on a web server that hosts a web application?
The code and resources that respond to events and perform useful tasks reside and run on the Web server hosting the application.
What are the four significant differences between programming for the Web and programming for Windows?
1. Web applications use server controls and HTML controls rather than Windows controls.

2. Web applications are displayed in a Web browser rather than in their own window.

3. Web forms are not persistent while displayed. You must preserve persistent data in a state variable during page and control events.

4. Processing occurs on the server and data is exchanged through a cycle of requests and responses.
At what level of a web application do events occur?
Events occur at the application, page, and server control levels.
What are the boundaries of a Web application determined by?
The boundaries of a Web application are determined by its folder structure.