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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Globally Ratio of Men:Women with Aids
Surrogate markers used for Drug regimesn
T-4 Lymphocyte coute and viral load
Highest HIV exposure category in the World is:
Men who have sex with women, because of Africa
The receptive partner is at greater risk of HIV infection the the insertive partner
What is Condoms efficent rate in the prevetion of AIDS/HIV
What is the Greatest risk factor for getting HIV/AIDS (what body fluid)
Side effects of AZT are:
* anemia (a drop in your red blood cells that can make you feel tired or short of breath)
* leukopenia ( a drop in your white blood cell that can increase your risk of bacterial infection).
* headache
* fatigue
* dizziness
* stomach upset
* muscle aches
* colour change in your nails
* difficulty sleeping
When placebos are used in phase II clinical trials, today, patients in this group are given the best available treatment against the diseased being tested
People with terminal illnesses are turning away for Traditional medicine and going to alternative therapies
The predominant clinical manifestation that occurs during the clinical course of the HIV infection is
A gradual decrease in CD-4 lymphocytes
According to the CDC which racial groups are proportionally over represented in the AIDS case in america.
Blacks and Hispanics
According to the CDC who are the highest exposed category to HIV/AIDS in america.
1. Men who have sex with men
During fallatio the receptive partner is at greater risk of HIV infection then the insertive partner.
Anthropologists have shown a correlation between male ______ and HIV tranmission in Afica.
HIV can be transmitted by insect bite
Dry sex in regions of Africa increase the rate of HIV tranmission.
Protease inhibitors target which component of the HIV life cycle.
assembly of the HIV virus.
If a organism makes 35 proteins how many genes must it have/
Who was President of the US during the AIDS out break
Why is there an increse risk of HIV tranmission in places like Aferica.
High levels of STDs, Sexual rituals that invole exchange of blood, lack of womens rights, people moving from small villiges to large citys.
Expression of which HIV gene is demonstrated to cause AIDS related demenia, in transgenic mice.
ENV (GpP120)
Making RNA from DNA is called
Makeing DNA from RNA is called
Being infected and having a T4 count lower then ______ will give you a diagnosis of AIDS
What ancient pharaoh is given responsible for the AIDS epidemic
King Tut (bogas)
In America, what year did the death rate begin to decline due to better drugs and treament.
Which Swedish scientist is given credit for starting the feild of taxonomy.
Who designed the Compassionate Plea program
David Kessler
Mutations in HIV are heritale changes in the sequence of what?
A monomer of RNA is called a
Phylogenetic trees for retroviruses were created by comparing sequence homologies of
Physician were intially afraid of HIV becuase it was transmitted in a similat fashion to?
when a B cell matures is becomes plasma and secretes?
Is HIV testing mandatory for all pregnant mothers
what does it cost to do drug testing and approval of the FDA
200 million
________ is a statictical examination and characterization of an epidemic or disase.
Is AIDS a rural or urban disease
HIV-2 is in what part of africa
In america what is the average to get diagnosis with AIDS
30-40 yrs.
How many people globally are impacted with HIV
40 million
How many g rituals enes does HIV have?
Why is AIDS a bigger problem globally, then in america
breast feeding, different levels of infected women, sex rituals
when a virus lays dormant in an infected cell, it is called?
what phase of clincal trials monitors the efficacy of the drug in question ageaist a specific disease
T cells requires which of the following organs to mature during development.
What steps in HIV life cycle are single out for targets for drugs
Reverse transcription and the assembly of core proteins
What birth controll pill in the 1960 gave daughters cervical cancer.
In the 1980's what meathod of AIDS tranmission was eliminated.
blood tranfustion.
AIDS is cased by what
An Epidemiology is:
The branch of medicine that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations. *Determine risk factors*
If a female is infected with HIV during intercorse, which of her cells most likely will be infected.
Langerhan cell
What type of cells are invouled in immune responce
Lymphocytes, macrophages, CD-4 cells, and killer cells (check for B cells)
When a B cell binds to its antigen it undergoes
Differentiation(maturation), clonal amphlification divison, and phagocytosis.
What type of lymphocytes does HIV infect
CD-4 lymphocytes, red blood cells, killer cells,
B lymphocytes
major side effects of drugs used to target HIV :
muscle and never pain, anemia, diarrhea
how many strands does typical DNA have
What generalized compinent of th immune responce is most important in makeing a vaccine
The magic bullet is in referece to:
syphilis paul ehrlich 1910
When was the Golden Age of MicroBiology
When was the Golden Age of Molecular biology
What phase of clinical trials needs consent
phase I,II and III
LD-50 is determined in phase
I and maybe II
AZT interfers with what part of the HIV life cycle
revers transcription
Which arm of the immune responce requires DIRECT help for a CD-4 lymphocyte
B cells
The primary immune response is slower then the secondary immune responce
A CD-8 cell becomes a
Probability of contraction aids by anal sex
lymphocyte secrete a hormone know as:
What could be used as a possable vaccine aginst HIV
Attenuated (weakened) HIV, GP-120, part of GP-120, a gene for ENV put in a non-disease producing virus.
When a CD-4 Cell matures it learns to:
Something your body recongnizes as non-self is called a(n)
The reeptive vaginal intercours the most likely cekk to be infected by HIV is a CD-4 lymphocyt.
Who is the Cal. Berkeley professor who believes the AIDS is not cause by HIV.
P. Duesberg
Which drugs are targeted to specific steps of the life cycle of HIV
Protease inhibitors
When a antigen meets the appropriate lymphocyte is case that lymphocyte to under go
clonal amplification and differentiation
the formation of a syncitium (a cluster of multinucleate cells) is one way that HIV kills uninfected cells
which type of lymphocyte is directed towars intracellular antigens
What book help shape Americans drug testing policy
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
Who was the Surgeon General during Reagans appoint.
C.E. Koop
What is a defination of a desease
A break down of the reflex arc
phagocytosis is cellular what?
The B cell receptors in a single B cell are homogeneous.