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149 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Brought the U.S. into World War II.
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
Planned and executed the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Admiral Yamamoto
The U.S. entered World War II in ________. (year)
1941
The Selective Service Act in 1940 was the first U.S. _________.
peacetime draft
The Selective Training and Service Act required military service registration for all males between the ages of ______.
21 and 36
Referred to U.S. servicemen.
GI
Abbreviation of "Government Issue."
GI
To meet the demand for war material, the American government directed the _______.
war production of businesses
Super-agency established to centralize agencies dealing with war production.
Office of War Mobilization
It was created by President Roosevelt to centralize agencies dealing with war production.
Office of War Mobilization
Ford Motor Company converted from making cars to making _____.
bombers
He used mass production techniques to build Liberty ships.
Henry Kaiser
Vessels built in the U.S. that usually carried troops or war supplies.
Liberty Ships
Henry J. Kaiser contributed to the war effort through his revolutionary ______.
production techniques
Producing goods for the Allied forces caused the U.S. to begin to emerge from the _____
Depression
As a result of war production, employment increased and union membership _______.
rose
Two weeks after Pearl Harbor, labor and business representatives agreed to refrain from _____.
strikes and lockouts
When an employer keeps employees out of the workplace to avoid meeting their demands.
lockout
As the cost of living rose during the war unions found the no-strike agreement ______.
hard to honor
During the war, the most serious union-organized strikes took place in the ____.
coal mines
Work stoppages organized by workers and not endorsed by unions.
wildcat strikes
Bond drives, raising income tax, and deficit spending were all used to _______.
finance the war
Government savings notes bought by Americans to help finance World War II.
war bonds
Using borrowed money to finance war production is an example of what type of spending?
deficit
Borrowing money was a type of deficit spending used to ________.
finance the war
To make sure there was enough goods to supply the soldiers during world war II many goods were _____.
rationed
Americans were prevented from spending the high wages they earned in wartime jobs because of shortages of _________.
consumer items
Was established to both control war time inflation and oversee rationing.
Office of Price Administration
Agency set up to boost Americans' patriotism and sense of participation in the war effort.
Office of War Information
Patriotism and high morale characterized popular culture on the _______.
home front
Home project that raised about one third of the nation's vegetables during World War II.
victory gardens
A home vegetable garden planted to add to the home food supply and replace produce sent to soldiers.
victory gardens
Drawn up by Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in August of 1941 IT established their joint aims and a set of principals for conducting the war.
Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Churchill first agreed on the strategy to concentrate on winning the _____.
war in Europe
Organization formed after World War II on the basis of the Atlantic Charter.
United Nations
Created at the end of World War II to keep the peace.
United Nations
Naval battle that pitted the U.S. and British navies against Germany.
Battle of the Atlantic
The U.S. and British Navy fought to keep THEM open because they were critical to British survival.
Atlantic trade routes
Were led by American and British warships to protect supply ships.
Convoys
Groups of as many as 20 German U-boats that carried out coordinated night-time attacks on convoys.
wolf packs
Resulted in German U-boat success rate plummeting.
Long range sub-hunting aircraft
Americans and British troops first fought together in ______. (place)
North Africa
Desert Fox, German General who at first had great success against the Allies in North Africa, eventually his army was driven back and forced to surrender.
Erwin Rommel
Rommel's threat to Egypt and the Suez Canal was halted in 1942 by the British under General Bernard Montgomery at ______.
El Alamein
On June 22, 1941 3.6 million German and other Axis troops invaded the _____.
Soviet Union
As the Soviet army was driven back by the Blitzkrieg it carried out a policy of _____.
scorched earth
In retreat destroying everything which might be useful to the enemy.
scorched earth
By the autumn of 1941, Germany had reached both ________.
Moscow and Leningrad
Wanted the U.S. & Britain to open a second front in France. (person)
Joseph Stalin
Even though Stalin desperately wanted the British and the U.S. to open a second front in France, to ease pressure on the Soviet Union, Churchill persuaded Roosevelt to invade _____.
Italy
After the Allies gained control of Africa, their next target was ____.
Italy
From North Africa the Allies attacked ______. (in 1943)
Sicily and Italy
Germany's advance in the Soviet Union in 1941 was halted by the ________.
Russian winter
In the summer of 1942 the Germans started a new offensive in the _________.
Soviet Union
In 1942 the Red Army made its stand at _____.
Stalingrad
In Stalingrad the Red Army defeated the Germans in _______.
house to house combat
Taking advantage of the Russian Winter the Soviets counter attacked at Stalingrad and on January 31, 1943 the ______.
Germans surrendered
Germans were finally halted in their advance into the Soviet Union at the _________.
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point of the war in the Soviet Union.
Battle of Stalingrad
Defeated Germany in Russia. (a major factor)
Russian Winter
After the Germans started bombing cities in the battle of Britain both sides began to attack ___.
civilian targets
In the spring of 1943 in preparation for an eventual invasion of France the allies stepped up their bombing by _____.
airplanes
Technique by which planes scattered large numbers of bombs.
carpet bombing
In a technique developed by Britain's Royal Air Force, planes scattered bombs over widespread areas.
carpet bombing
Main cause of the loss of civilian lives.
bombing by airplanes
Beginning of the end of the war in Europe.
Invasion of Normandy
The Allied invasion of France forced Hitler to fight a war on _____.
two fronts
Beginning of the invasion of Normandy.
D-Day
Year of D-Day.
1944
Commanding General of the invasion of Normandy.
Dwight Eisenhower
Beginning of the Allied invasion to take back Europe from the Axis Powers.
D-Day
The beginning of the landing of Allied forces on France's Normandy coast.
D-Day
In December of 1944 Germany launched a counter attack which resulted in a bulge in the Allied lines and the __________.
Battle of the Bulge
Largest battle fought in Western Europe during World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
After the Battle of the Bulge most Nazi leaders recognized that the war was ______.
lost
Soviets and Americans met in Germany at the _______.
River Elbe
Hitler commits suicide, Germany surrenders.
V.E. Day
On May 8, 1945 it marked the end of the war in Europe.
V-E Day
Roosevelt, Churchill, & Stalin met to plan the end of the war.
Yalta Conference
At Yalta Stalin promised to allow THEM in the nations of Eastern Europe that his army had liberated from Germany.
free elections
After IT surrendered the Allies decided to divide it into four parts, to be governed by Britain, the U.S., the Soviets, and France.
Germany
Hitler believed they were a master race.
Aryans
Discrimination or hostility, often violent toward Jews.
anti-Semitism
To get rid of the Jews was one of THEIR main goals in the 1930s.
Nazis
Stripped the Jews of their German citizenship.
Nuremberg Laws
The night during which Nazi thugs, carrying out the first organized attacks on Jews, looted and destroyed Jewish stores, houses, and synagogues.
Kristallnacht
At the Wannsee Conference it was decided that to kill all the Jews was the "_____."
final solution to the Jewish question
Conference where the Nazis decided on the "final solution."
Wannsee Conference
Hitler's plan to murder all the Jews.
"Final Solution"
Nazi Germany's systematic murder of European Jews.
Holocaust
Nazis sent Jews and political opponents to ____.
Concentration camps
Nazis forced Jews, poles, & Soviet Slavs to work as _____.
slave labor
Carried out Hitler's policy of exterminating the Jews.
SS
A type of concentration camp that existed only for mass murder.
death camp
Death camp in Poland where 4 million inmates mostly Jews were murdered.
Auschwitz
Number of Jews killed in the Holocaust
6 million
In April of 1943, the Jews in Warsaw engaged in a month-long revolt against _______.
deportation to Treblinka (death camp)
Finally created by Roosevelt in 1944, to try to help the Jews in Germany.
the War Refugee Board
Nazis tried for war crimes.
Nuremburg Trials
The concept that individuals are responsible for their own actions, and can't simply claim that they were following orders came out of the ___.
Nuremberg Trials
Just hours after they bombed Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attacked Clark Field an American air base in the ________.
Philippines
When the Japanese advanced against his troops in the Philippines he was forced to leave.
General MacArthur
Promised "I shall return," to the Philippines.
General Douglas MacArthur
After the fall of the Philippines to Japan out of the 600,000 U.S. and Filipino prisoners, forced to march 70 miles to prison camps, over 100,000 died of starvation and maltreatment.
Bataan Death March
First air raid on Tokyo did little physical damage but shocked Japan and boosted Allied morale.
Doolittle Raid
The battles of the Coral Sea, Midway, and Guadalcanal were all fought in the ______.
Pacific
Allied victory that prevented the Japanese from establishing the bases they needed to invade Australia.
Battle of the Coral Sea
Critical new naval weapon of WWII.
Aircraft Carrier
Turning point in the Pacific War.
Battle of Midway
Commander of the American Pacific fleet, directed the victory at the Battle of Midway.
Admiral Nimitz
In this battle the Japanese lost all four carriers and 250 planes.
Battle of Midway
Victory that allowed the Allies to take the offensive in the Pacific.
Battle of Midway
Battle in which Marines had their first taste of jungle fighting and the first time the Allies had conquered a piece of Japanese-held territory.
Battle of Guadalcanal
Offensive strategy of American admirals to beat the Japanese in the Pacific.
island hopping
U.S. policy of leap frogging over Islands that were well fortified by the Japanese and attacking less fortified islands, that strategically enabled the U.S. to move toward Japan.
Island hopping
With the use of blockades islands which were leap frogged were left to _____.
"wither on the vine"
Their island-hopping strategy, put the Allies in a position to __________.
bomb Japan
Greatest Naval Battle in World History.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
First Battle in which the Japanese used Kamikazes.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Bomb-loaded planes whose pilots deliberately crashed into targets.
kamikazes
The U.S. awarded 27 Medals of Honor for actions in this battle, more than in any other single operation of the war.
Battle of Iwo Jima
Admiral Nimitz described this island as a place in which "uncommon valor was a common virtue."
Iwo Jima
Victory in this battle opened the way for an Allied invasion of Japan.
Battle of Okinawa
U.S. government project to develop an atomic bomb.
Manhattan Project
Truman ordered the dropping of the Atomic Bomb to avoid _______.
invading Japan
The dropping of atomic bombs by the U.S. on Hiroshima and Nagasaki finally brought an ____.
end to World War II
Japan accepted American terms for surrender after atomic bombs were dropped on ______.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Less than a week after the destruction of Nagasaki ________.
Japan surrendered
World War II ended in _______. (year)
1945
The number of deaths in World War II was as many as ________.
50 million
Even in the North during the war years they faced discrimination in employment, housing, and education.
African Americans
Was created by the federal government to act against employment discrimination.
Fair Employment Practices Committee
During World War II, African Americans fought in ________.
segregated units
Took direct action to promote racial equality on the home front during the war.
African Americans
Founded in 1942, in Chicago, it believed in using nonviolent techniques to end racism.
CORE
CORE
Congress of Racial Equality
Mexican farm laborers brought to work in the United States.
braceros
Spanish-speaking neighborhoods.
barrios
Mexican American laborers often lived in ____.
barrios
Navajo radio operators who helped secure communications in the Pacific.
"code talkers"
Japanese Americans born in the U.S. of parents who emigrated from Japan.
Nisei
Long-held prejudice, and fears inflamed by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, led the government to evacuate _________.
Japanese Americans from the West Coast
Centers in remote inland areas where Japanese Americans were confined during World War II.
internment camps
During World War II, many Japanese Americans were confined to camps in isolated areas or ________.
interned
Wartime hysteria in the U.S. resulted in the _____.
internment of Japanese Americans
Year Congress finally passed a law awarding each surviving Japanese American internee $20,000 tax free and an apology.
1988
Because of the war THEY began to work in large numbers as steelworkers and welders.
women
Image used to attract women to wartime workforce.
Rosie the Riveter
After the war THEY were expected to leave their jobs and return home.
women