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560 Cards in this Set

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Chapter 1
The last president born before the Constitution. (1) pg. 6
Zachary Taylor
A person of remarkable talent or ability who achieves great success or acclaim at an early age. (2)
Wunderkind
American technique of making each part by a special-purpose machine, which could reproduce an endless number of similar parts. (1) pg. 15
American system of Manufacturers
Houses built using the American system of Manufacturers. (1) pg. 17
balloon frames
A sociopolitical policy, especially in the United States in the 19th century, favoring the interests of established inhabitants over those of immigrants. (2)
Nativism
The coexistence of many cultures in a locality, without any one culture dominating the region. (2)
Cultural pluralism
Seeks to overcome racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination. (2)
Cultural pluralism
The boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland, regarded as the division between free and slave states before the Civil War. (2)
Mason-Dixon line
30,000 miles of _________that was laid in the U.S. by 1860 was larger than the rest of the world combined. (1) pg. 12
Railroad
None
Provided instant quotations on price changes all over the country. (1) pg. 12
Telegraph
In 1848 several major newspapers pooled resources to form the __________________. (1) pg. 13
Associated Press
Could not survive the transportation revolution. (1) pg. 13
Pre-Industrial world
Made possible a division of labor and specialization of production for even larger and more distant markets (helped end the pre-industrial world. (1) pg. 13
Transportation Revolution
None
Crops for which the soil and climate were most suitable. (1) pg. 13
Specialized crops
Industrialists. (1) pg. 13
merchant capitalists
They reorganized and standardized the production of a variety of goods for large-volume sale in regional and national markets. (1) pg. 13
merchant capitalists
None
Often women and children who performed separate parts of a sequential process previously done entirely by skilled workers. (1) pg. 14
semiskilled workers
Worked in their homes and returned to the shop for finishing. (1) pg. 14
semiskilled workers
Regularity, punctuality, constancy and industry by moral and religious instruction daily given. (1) pg. 20
Protestant ethical values
None
Often women and children who performed separate parts of a sequential process previously done entirely by skilled workers. (1) pg. 22
green hands/slop workers
Dependence on wages robbed a man of his independence and therefore of his liberty; no better than slave laborer. (1) pg. 24
wage slavery
Capitalism glorified the pursuit of self-interest in the quest for profits; Virtue required individuals to put the community's interest above their own. (1) pg. 24
Capitalism versus virtue
Specified that a republic must benefit all the people, not just favored classes. (1) pg. 24
Commonwealth
None
Exclusive control by one group of the means of producing or selling a commodity or service. (2)
monopolies
Concentrations of power that endangered liberty. (1) pg. 25
monopolies
In the largest American cities, the wealthiest 5 percent of the population owned about 70 percent of the taxable property. (1) pg. 26
unequal distribution of wealth
Fostered by monopolies. (1) pg. 26
unequal distribution of wealth
Ownership of real and personal property. (2)
wealth
Support for the Whigs and the Democrats led to a ________________________. (1) pg. 27
two party system
The Banking question remained a polarizing issue in state politics between the ___. (1) pg. 27
Whigs and Democrats
None
Pro-banking Whigs against anti-banking Democrats. (1) pg. 27
Whigs versus Democrats
Greater efficiency benefited both alike by raising wages as well as profits. (1) pg. 27
Whig defense of capitalism
"The interests of the capitalist and the laborer are … in perfect harmony with each other." (1) pg. 28
Whig answer to labor theory of value
Supported internal improvements in the form of roads, canals, railroads, tariffs to protect American industry and labor from low-wage foreign competition, a centralized rationalized banking system. (1) pg. 28
Whig supporters
Belief that a person could better their position and rise to fortune and social distinction. (1) pg. 28
Ideology of upward mobility
None
Produced an outpouring of self-improvement literature advising young men how to get ahead. (1) pg. 29
Gospel of success
Supported all kinds of "improvements" to promote economic growth and upward mobility. (1) pg. 29
Whig supporters
Affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people. (2)
egalitarianism
Their commitment to slavery and racism was as blatant in the North as it was in the South. (1) pg. 31
Democratic supporters
None
Turns from a unit of production to a unit of consumption.
Family
Why women were not paid as much as men for the same services. (1) pg. 35
Domestic Feminism
Demanded equal rights in all spheres. (1) pg. 35
Radical Feminism
Convention that launched the women's rights movement. (1) pg. 36
Seneca Falls
Declared all men and women are created equal and deserved their inalienable rights including the elective franchise. (1) pg. 36
Declaration of Sentiments
None
It was encouraged then threatened with destruction. (1) pg. 37
Slave Family
None
Members of the movement that agitated for the compulsory emancipation of the slaves. (1) pg. 36
Abolitionists
Many believed free labor was incompatible with _____________. (1) pg. 37
slavery
Free labor versus the right to ______________. (1) pg. 37
property
Argument over slavery in the South could be contained by the _________________. (1) pg. 38
two party system
Argument over the expansion of slavery could not be contained by the ____________. (1) pg. 38
two party system
Book that condemned slavery out of the slave owners'' own mouths. (1) pg. 38
"American Slavery as It Is"
Chapter two
Presided over the acquisition of more territory than any other President. (1) pg. 47
James K. Polk
Mr. Polk's war. (1) pg. 47
Mexican-American War
None
Voted against a war with Mexico. (1) pg. 47
Whigs
Belief that the U.S. was destined to expand to the Pacific. (3) pg. 248
Manifest Destiny
Dates of the Mexican War. (3) pg. 249
1846-1848
Used as justification for the Mexican War. (1) pg. 48
Manifest Destiny
Polk provoked war by sending U.S. troops into territory ___________. (1) pg. 48
claimed by Mexico
The Mexican War and Manifest destiny were supported by ___________. (1) pg. 48
Democrats
The Mexican War and Manifest destiny were opposed by _________________. (1) pg. 48
Whigs
Favored internal improvements over expansion (party). (1) pg. 49
Whigs
Led settlers in an uprising that proclaimed an independent California. (1) pg. 49
John C. Fremont
Brief independence of Californian Republic. (1) pg. 49
Bear Flag Republic
Yielded territory that includes the present states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. (3) pg. 249
Mexican American War or Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
None
Wanted to annex all of Mexico. (1) pg. 50
All Mexico Democrats
Did not want to acquire any new territory from the Mexican War. (1) pg. 50
No territory Whigs
Created the phrase "Mexico will poison us." (1) pg. 51
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Admitted MO as a slave state, Maine as a free state and prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Purchase above Thirty six thirty (1820). (4) pg. 865
Missouri Compromise
Line above which slavery was prohibited in Louisiana Purchase. (4) pg. 865
thirty six thirty
Would make slavery illegal in all territory gained in the Mexican War. (1) pg. 52
Wilmot Proviso
Before the Wilmot Proviso Congress was divided by_____. (1) pg. 54
Party
After the Wilmot Proviso Congress was divided by ____. (1) pg. 54
section
Antislavery people varied by degree with the most extreme being the ______. (1) pg. 54
Abolitionists
Some people like Lincoln believed Slavery "an unqualified evil" but did not believe it was the _______________. (1) pg. 55
most crucial issue facing the nation
Often it's effect was the opposite of it's intent (in respect to slavery). (1) pg. 55
Abolitionism
Lincoln believed it tended to unite the South in its defense of slavery. (1) pg. 55
Abolitionism
Before 1840 southerners tended to defend slavery as a ______. (1) pg. 56
Necessary Evil
After 1840 Southerners tended to defend slavery as a _______. (1) pg. 56
Positive Good
Belief that slavery eliminated class conflict that could destroy free-labor societies. (1) pg. 56
Marxist argument for slavery
He defended slavery as "a positive good…the most safe and stable basis for free institutions in the world. (1) pg. 57
John C. Calhoun
Michigan Senator first identified with popular sovereignty. (1) pg. 58
Lewis Cass
Mexican war hero, Whig candidate for presidency in 1848. (1) pg. 58
Zachary Taylor
Mexican war general failed presidential candidate. (1) pg. 59
Winfield Scott
Old Fuss and Feathers. (1) pg. 58
Winfield Scott
All adult white males could vote. (1) pg. 59
(White) manhood suffrage
"Mr. Whig--a founder of the party and architect of the 'American system.'" (1) pg. 59
Henry Clay
Intended to promote economic growth by a protective tariff, a national bank, and federal aid to internal improvements. (1) pg. 59
"American System"
Belief that the slavery issue, in the territories, should be decided by popular vote. (1) pg. 58
Popular Sovereignty
Whigs who would not support anyone who is not known to be against the extension of slavery. (1) pg. 60
"Conscience Whigs"
Opposed the Mexican War & supported the Wilmot Proviso but were willing to join with southern Whigs to elect slave owner Zachary Taylor. (1) pg. 60
"Cotton Whigs"
Whigs who supported the extension of slavery. (1) pg. 60
Southern Whigs
Antislavery democrats who stomped out of the 1848 convention. (1) pg. 60
"Barnburners"
Nominated Martin Van Buren on a Wilmot Proviso platform in presidential election of 1848. (1) pg. 61
Barnburner Convention
Pragmatic leader of the Liberty Party who favored a coalition with all Whigs and democrats who favored keeping slavery out of the territories. (1) pg. 61
Salmon P. Chase
Founded as a pure abolitionist party. (1) pg. 61
Liberty Party
Conscience Whigs. (1) pg. 61
Antislavery Whigs
Anyone who wanted to keep slavery out of the territories. (1) pg. 61
Free Soilers
A coalition of those who want to keep slavery out of the territories meet in Buffalo and nominate Martin Van Buren for President. (1) pg. 61
Free Soil convention
None
Was nominated by both the Barnburner convention and the Free Soil convention in 1848. (1) pg. 61
Martin Van Buren
An antislavery advisor of Zachary Taylor. (1) pg. 63
William H. Seward
"Free soil, Free speech, free labor, and free men." (1) pg. 62
Free Soil motto
Resulted in California's early need for a territorial government. (1) pg. 64
Gold Rush of 1849
Gold was discovered in the river by his sawmill. (1) pg. 64
John Sutter
Eventual vice president of the confederacy supported Taylor in 1848. (1) pg. 258
Alexander Stephens
An equal number of slave states to free states maintaining a balance in the Senate. (1) pg. 66
Balance of Power
The House of Representatives was unable to elect a _____________ in 1849. (1) pg. 68
Speaker
None
President Taylor attempted to admit California and New Mexico_______. (1) pg. 68
directly as states
Jefferson Davis believed the admission of California and New Mexico as states would destroy the __________. (1) pg. 66
Balance of Power
Earliest to believe the differences with the North were irreconcilable. Passionate southern nationalists. (1) pg. 69
"Fire-eaters"
Senator from Massachusetts, member of the Senate Triumvirate, defended national unity. (1) pg. 70, (3) pg. 257
Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, & John C. Calhoun. (1) pg. 70
Senate Triumvirate
Admitted California as "free" state but allowed some newly opened territories to decide for themselves. (popular sovereignty). Also enacted a strict fugitive slave law. (4) pg. 312
Compromise of 1850
The force behind the compromise of 1850. (1) pg. 70
Henry Clay
Had prohibited slavery in the old Northwest territory back in 1787. (1) pg. 72
Northwest Ordinance
Belief that a law higher than the Constitution (God's law) made slavery wrong. (1) pg. 73
"Higher Law"
Speech made by William H Seward which inflamed southerners. (1) pg. 73
Higher Law speech
Seward's higher law speech represented the opinion of the _______. (1) pg. 73
Upper North
None
Men from these regions worked for a settlement of the two extremes. (1) pg. 73
Lower North and Upper South
Calhoun's defense of slavery as a positive good represented the opinion of the __________. (1) pg. 73
Lower South
Fire-eaters met at the _____________. (1) pg.73
Nashville Convention
Civilians write a free-state constitution for New Mexico. (1) pg. 74
Convention in Santa Fe
A clash between Texas and the U.S. army seemed imminent over ______________. (1) pg. 74
New Mexico
Died when a crisis over New Mexico seemed imminent. (1) pg. 74
President Zachary Taylor
Replaced Taylor as President of the U.S. (1) pg. 74
Millard Fillmore
Was more open to compromise than President Taylor. (1) pg. 74
President Fillmore
Something which can be used to carry a lot of people. E.G. legislation that will win the support of lots of people. (2)
Omnibus
The strategy of the Compromise of 1850. Gives each side something it wants to get them to accept something they don't want. (1) pg.75
Omnibus strategy
Actually a derisive term for the Clay's compromise of 1850 used by President Taylor. (1) pg. 73
Omnibus bill
The one who actually was able to push through the Compromise of 1850 by breaking it down to its component parts and getting each part passed. (1) pg. 75
Stephen Douglas
A contemptuous nickname for a timid, yielding politician, or one who is easily molded. (2)
doughface
California's new senators were of a decidedly ___________. (1) pg. 77
doughface cast
Part of the Compromise of 1850 that required all Northern agencies and even private citizens to help in capturing and returning slaves to their owners. (4) pg. 312
fugitive slave law
Became one of the most inflammatory issues in the North. They resented its imposition on them. (1) pg. 77
fugitive slave law
President Fillmore christened the Compromise of 1850 to be the ______________. (1) pg. 76
"final settlement"
Chapter 3
Affirmed that a slaveholder's right to his property overrode any contrary state legislation. (1) pg. 78
Prigg vs.. Pennsylvania
Enforcement of fugitive slave clause was a federal responsibility not state. (1) pg. 78 (court decision)
Prigg vs.. Pennsylvania
None
Authorized slave owners' to cross state lines to recapture their property and bring it before any local magistrate or federal court to prove ownership. (1) pg. 78
Fugitive Slave Law of 1793
None
Did not make sure they had captured the right man. (1) pg. 78
slave capturers
Was declared unconstitutional because of slaveholders right to property. (1) pg. 79
Pennsylvania anti-kidnapping law
Carried fugitives North toward freedom. (1) pg. 79
Underground railroad
Yankee network of law breakers who stole thousands of slaves each year. (1) pg. 79
Underground railroad
Put the burdon of proof on captured blacks but gave them no legal power to prove freedom. (1) pg. 80
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
Refusal or failure of a U.S. state to recognize or enforce a federal law with in its boundaries. (1) pg. 81
Nullification
An Abolitionist pacifist. (1) pg. 84
William Lloyd Garrison
Believe that conflicts between peoples should and could be settled peacefully. (2)
Pacifists
Freed slave who became the foremost black leader prior to and during civil warm. (1) pg. 84
Frederick Douglass
He said "The only way to make the Fugitive Slave Law a dead letter is to make half a dozen or more dead kidnappers." (1) pg. 84
Frederick Douglass
Radical White abolitionist who began as a wool merchant Springfield, MA. (1) pg. 84
John Brown
Organized the "Gileadites." (1) pg. 84
John Brown
Black self-defense group. (1) pg. 84
Gileadites
Quaker village in Pennsylvania that became site of a slave crisis. (1) pg. 84
Christiana
Fight between a Maryland slave-owner trying to reclaim his slaves and fugitive slaves. (1) pg. 85
"Battle of Christiana"
"Civil War - The First Blow Struck", according to a Lancaster, Pennsylvania newspaper. (1) pg. 85
"Battle of Christiana"
A Christian sect that housed fugitive slaves in their community in Christiana, PA. (2)
Quakers
Trials of 36 blacks and five whites for betraying their country in the "Battle of Christiana." (1) pg. 85
Treason Trials
None
The government's case quickly degenerated into a farce. (1) pg. 85
Treason Trials
A belligerent person or a militant partisan who did not want to stay in the union because of Northern resistance to the Fugitive Slave Law. (2)
Fire-eater
A minority of Democrats in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi who joined Whigs to confront Southern Rights Democrats. (1) pg. 86
Constitutional Union Parties
Advocated "cooperation" with other states rather than secession by individual states. (1) pg. 86
Constitutional Union Parties
Democrats who wanted slavery protected. (1) pg. 86
Southern Rights Democrats
Convention that demonstrated that cooperation was another word for inaction. (1) pg. 87
Nashville Convention
It declared that while the South did "not wholly approve" of the Compromise of 1850 she would "abide by it as a permanent adjustment of this sectional controversy" - so long as the North similarly abided. (1) pg. 87
"Georgia Platform"
None
Any action by Congress against slavery in the District of Columbia, any refusal to admit a new slave state or to recognize slavery in the new territories would cause Georgia to resist, with secession "as a last resort." (1) pg. 87
"Georgia Platform"
A perishable commodity that would last only as long as the North remained on good behavior. (1) pg. 87
Southern Unionism
Radical antislavery Congressman from Vermont entered the House in 1849. (1) pg. 87
Thaddeus Stevens
Radical antislavery Congressman from Indiana entered the House in 1849. (1) pg. 87
George W. Julian
None
Radical antislavery Congressman from Ohio entered the Senate in 1851. (1) pg. 87
Benjamin Wade
None
Racist attitude that characterized much of the Northern Population. (1) pg. 88
Negrophobia
Legislation barring the immigration of any black person, free or slave. (2)
exclusion laws
They were used in border states to reassure the South and reflected the racist sentiments of many whites. (1) pg. 88
exclusion laws
None
Residents in the southern tier of Ohio who wanted no part of black people and were more likely to aid the slave catcher than the fugitive. (1) pg. 88
Butternuts
Were swept into the antislavery movement by the Second Great Awakening. (1) pg. 88
Evangelical Protestants
Religious revival in the late 1820s and 1830s. Grew partly out of a reaction to the Deism of the French Revolution.
Second Great Awakening
Leading preacher of the Second Great Awakening
Charles Grandison Finney
Charles Grandison Finney argued against the Calvinistic view of God and argued that men were moral free agents, who could obtain salvation by their ________.
own efforts
Name given to Western New York state by Charles Grandison Finney because it had been so evangelized that there was no fuel left (people to be converted).
Burned over district
The Second Great Awakening encouraged the growth of ________.
reform movements
Author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." (1) pg. 88
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Book that expressed the unpleasant life of a slave. (1) pg. 88
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Daughter, sister and wife of Congregational clergymen. (1) pg. 88
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote New Orleans magazine about the unfairness of the South's economic dependence on the North. (1) pg. 93
James B.D. De Bow
Belief that Southern Commerce could control economics in the North. (1) pg. 93
"Commerce is King"
It attempted to establish southern-owned shipping lines for direct trade with Europe (1845). (1) pg. 93
Convention of Memphis
None
Trading with other countries without being directed through the North. (1) pg. 95
Commercial Independence
A popular personification of the great staple production of the Southern U.S. (2)
King Cotton
A movement for equitable distribution of land and for agrarian reform (to further agricultural interests). (2)
Jeffersonian agrarianism
Rum from New England traded with West Africa for slaves, slaves then traded with the West Indies for tobacco and molasses. (2)
Triangular Trade
In slave trade the part from Africa to the West Indies on the Atlantic Ocean.
Middle Passage
For economic reasons slave owners in the upper South opposed its reopening. (1) pg. 102
Middle Passage
Vessel used by Charles Lamar in illicit slave trade. (1) pg. 103
Wanderer
Owner of the Wanderer, who participated in the illegal slave trade in the 1850s. (1) pg. 103
Charles A.L. Lamar
A policy of imperialist expansion defended as necessary and benevolent. (2)
Manifest Destiny
Southerners looked to lands South of the border for the purpose_________. (1) pg. 104
acquiring more slave territory
"The Pearl of the West Indies". (1) pg. 104
Cuba
Southerners hoped to purchase Cuba to _______________. (1) pg. 104
extend slavery
In the House of Rep. they made it unlikely to have the funds appropriated to buy Cuba because it contained nearly half a million slaves. (1) pg. 104
Whig and Wilmot Proviso Majority
None
Cuban soldier who fled to New York, then led an uprising in Cuba with the hope of freeing Cuba from Spanish rule. (1) 105
Narciso Lopez
American adventurers who raised or participated in military forces that either invaded or planned to invade foreign countries with which the United States was formally at peace. (2)
Filibusters
Filibusters wanted to gain territory for the ___________. (1) pg. 105
expansion of slavery
Led Filibusters in Cuba. (1) pg. 105
Narciso Lopez
Mississippi Governor who help Lopez recruit men and raise money and weapons. (1) pg. 106
John Quitman
Commanded a regiment of Southern volunteers in Cuba. (1) pg. 106
William J. Crittenden
Died down for a time while expansionists concentrated on winning a friendly administration in the election of 1852. (1) pg. 107
Filibustering
Element of the Democratic party which made Cuba an important issue in the election of 1852. (1) pg. 107
"Young America"
None
Was elected President in 1852. (1) pg. 107
Franklin Pierce
He said "Our position on the globe, render the acquisition of certain possessions eminently important to our protection." (1) pg. 107
Franklin Pierce
None
Filled his cabinet with supporters of Manifest Destiny. (1) pg. 107
Franklin Pierce
Appointed as minister to Spain by Franklin Pierce. (1) pg. 108
Pierre Soule
Pierre Soule supported filibusters in Cuba and bringing Cuba into the U.S. as a ________. (1) pg. 107
state
Revolutionary movements against monarchy in Europe. (1) pg. 108
Revolutions of 1848
Only expansionist achievement of the Pierce administration. (1) pg. 108
Gadsden Purchase
Purchase of 46,000 square miles of Northern Mexico from Santa Anna. (1) pg. 108
Gadsden Purchase
Mexican leader who sold part of Mexico to U.S. in Gadsden Purchase. (1) pg. 108
Santa Anna
It occupied England and France while John Quitman tried organizing an revolutionary uprising in Cuba with intentions of an American take-over. (1) pg. 109
Crimean War
None
Because so much political capital was spent on this issue, it deprived the slave states of the strength it needed for the acquisition of Cuba. (2)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Law, if suspended, would have allowed a legal attempt at take-over of Cuba. (2)
Neutrality law
It said, “Cuba is as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present…family of states." (1) pg. 110
Ostend Manifesto
None
It declared if the United States decided that its security required possession of the island, and Spain persisted in refusing to sell, then “by every law, human and Divine, we shall be justified in wresting it from Spain.” (1) pg. 110
Ostend Manifesto
None
Appointed himself commander in chief of the Nicaraguan army. (1) pg. 111
William Walker
Filibustered in Nicaragua and gained control of the government. (1) pg. 111
William Walker
New York transportation tycoon established the Accessory Transit Company to carry passengers and freight between New York and San Francisco via Nicaragua. (1) pg. 112
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Political group controlling Nicaragua government before William Walker took over. (1) pg. 112
"Legitimists"
Line between slavery and freedom in all territories “now held, or hereafter acquired”. (1) pg. 115
thirty six thirty
Organization made to promote a “golden circle” of slave states from the American South through Mexico and Central American to the rim of South America curving northward again through the West Indies to close the circle at Key West. (1) pg. 116
Knights of the Golden Circle
Wanted to control Cotton, Tobacco, Sugar, Coffee, Rice, Corn and Tea lands of the continent. (1) pg. 116
Knights of the Golden Circle
Mississippi Congressman who wanted to “plant American liberty with southern institutions upon every inch of American soil.” (1) pg. 116
L.Q.C. Lamar
Chapter four
In 1852 Seward favored the Whig nomination of ________. (1) pg. 117
Winfield Scott
Last time the Whigs contested the Presidency. (1) pg. 117
Election of 1852
His efforts to enforce the Fugitive slave law gained support of Southern Whigs. (1) pg. 117
President Millard Fillmore
His efforts to enforce the Fugitive slave law lost the support of antislavery Whigs. (1) pg. 117
President Millard Fillmore
Alexander Stephens and Robert Toombs led Southern Whigs who refused to _________. (1) pg. 118
back Winfield Scott
Radical element of the Democratic Party opposed to the extension of slavery. (1) pg. 60
Barnburners
Democratic Party's Presidential candidate in 1848. (4) pg. 244
Lewis Cass
Most famous supporter of Popular sovereignty on the slavery issue.
Stephen Douglas
Candidate supported by Southern Democrats in the election of 1852. (1) pg. 118
James Buchanan
Dark horse candidate elected President in 1852. (1) pg. 118
Franklin Pierce
Proslavery extremists in the South. (2)
Fire-eaters
Enforced the fugitive slave law vigorously and opened the rest of the Louisiana Purchase North of thirty six thirty to slavery. (1) pg. 119
Franklin Pierce
Fugitive slave returned to the South by Pierce's enforcement. Becomes a symbol. (1) pg. 119
Anthony Burns
Burned a copy of the Constitution after the Anthony Burns affair. (1) pg. 120
William Lloyd Garrison
statutes designed to prevent slave owners from reclaiming slaves who had escaped to the free states. (2)
Personal Liberty Laws
Escaped slave who killed her children rather than see them returned to slavery. Returned to the South instead of being tried in the North. (1) pg. 120
Margaret Garner
More important than even the fugitive slave law in arousing northern militancy. (1) pg. 121
Kansas-Nebraska Act
May have been the most important event in pushing the nation toward civil war. (1) pg. 121
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Kansas-Nebraska finished off the Whig party and gave birth to a new, entirely northern _______. (1) pg. 121
Republican Party
Above this line slavery had been excluded in the Louisiana purchase by the MO. compromise. (1) pg. 121
thirty six thirty
Had prohibited slavery in the territory which would become Kansas & Nebraska. (1) pg. 121
Missouri Compromise
Illinois Democrat champion of Young America's manifest destiny to expand westward. (1) pg. 121
Stephen Douglas
Powerful Senate bloc of four southerners who boarded together. (1) pg. 122
"F Street Mess"
The "F street Mess" made it clear to Stephen Douglas that if he wanted to organize the Nebraska territory he had to repeal the Missouri Compromise's ______________. (1) pg. 122
ban on slavery there
Established the Kansas and Nebraska territories and provided that they could decide for themselves on the issue of slavery. (4) pg. 702
Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Kansas-Nebraska acts popular sovereignty repealed the _______________. (1) pg. 123
Missouri Compromise
Primary author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. (1) pg. 123
Stephen Douglas
Endorse the repeal of the Missouri Compromise or lose the South. (1) pg. 123
Ultimatum to President Pierce
Became a test of Democratic party orthodoxy. (1) pg. 123
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Territories would vote themselves on whether or not to allow slavery.
Popular sovereignty
Disproportionate representation of the South in congress due to the counting of slaves who had no voting rights.
"Slave Power"
Meeting to oppose the repeal of the Missouri compromise and the potential for slavery to move into areas where it had been prohibited. (1) pg. 124
"anti-Nebraska" meetings
Had only dealt with territory gained from the Mexican war. (1) pg. 124
Compromise of 1850
Territory gained from the Mexican War. (1) pg. 124
Mexican cession
This territory was covered by the Missouri Compromise. (1) pg. 124
Louisiana Purchase
Argument that the Compromise of 1850 had superseded the Missouri Compromise's ban on slavery. (1) pg. 124
supersedence theory
Those whose greatest desire was to keep slavery out of the territories. (1) pg. 125
Free-soilers
Destroys the Whig Party. (1) pg. 125
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Democrats who opposed the repeal of the Missouri compromise's ban on slavery. (1) pg. 126
Anti-Nebraska Democrats
Emerged as one of the most prominent names for coalitions opposed to Kansas-Nebraska and Slave power. (1) pg. 126
Republican
Remained a Whig while campaigning for anti-Nebraska candidates in Illinois. (1) pg. 127
Abraham Lincoln
He believed the Constitution protected slavery where it already existed but in no way protected its expansion. (1) pg. 128
Abraham Lincoln
None
Lincoln believed its great moral wrong was that it opened territory which had been previously closed to slavery. (1) pg. 128
Kansas-Nebraska Act
None
Though Lincoln was not an abolitionist he did believe slavery was a cancer on the nation that must eventually be ___________. (1) pg. 129
cut out
Turned out to be a rebuke of the Democrats. (1) pg. 129
elections of 1854
Democrats who favored the Kansas-Nebraska act and popular sovereignty. (1) pg. 130
Douglas Democrats
Anti-immigrant sentiment. (2)
Nativism
Strong nativist movement in the U.S. in the 1850s. (2)
"The Know Nothing Fever"
In the mid 1840s it increased immigration into the U.S. (1) pg. 130
European potato blight
Those who opposed the anti-immigrant bias. (1) pg. 131
anti-nativist
Leader of the anti-nativists. (1) pg. 131
William H. Seward
Derogatory term for Irish Americans. (2)
"paddies"
Knocked a number of northern Whigs from the party. (1) pg. 131
ethnic hostilities
Most of the new arrivals to the U.S. in the 1850s were __________________. (1) pg. 130
Catholic peasants or laborers
Earlier Protestant immigrants from England, Scotland and especially Ulster brought their____. (1) pg. 131
Anti-Catholic sentiments
Northern Ireland. (4) pg. 1311
Ulster
Political extremists (2)
Radicals
Do not believe that one can know if there is a God or not. (2)
Agnostics
Fled from Germany after the suppression of the 1848 revolutions. (1) pg. 131
Forty-eighters
Liberal revolutions that spread across Europe in 1848. (1) pg. 131
1848 revolutions
Drives southern Whigs from the party. (1) pg. 131
Issue of Slavery
None
Drives northern Whigs from the party. (1) pg. 131
Ethnic hostility
Violent enemy of liberalism and social reform. Proclaimed the doctrine of papal infallibility and issued his Syllabus of Errors. (1) pg. 132
Pius IX
Pope's inability to make an error in that which he decrees.
Papal infallibility
The Pope's condemnation of socialism, public education & rationalism. (1) pg. 132
Syllabus of Errors
New York Archbishop that attacked abolitionists, Free Soilers, and various protestant reform movements as kin to the "Red Republicanism." (1) pg. 132
Archbishop Hughes
Political party in France at the time of the 1848 Revolutions which wanted to reorganize the state with an equal distribution of property (socialism). (2)
"Red Republicanism"
A Catholic plot to blow up Parliament and King James I, created anti-catholic hostility. (2)
Gunpowder plot
Contained accounts of the persecutions of Christians especially protestants by Catholics. (2)
Fox's Book of Martyrs
Folk memories of Bloody Mary, the Spanish Armada, the Gunpowder plot, the Glorious Revolution and Fox's Book of Martyrs were part of the Anglo-American _________. (1) pg. 132
Protestant Consciousness
First Plenary Council of American Bishops attacked the Godlessness of _______. (1) pg. 132
public education
Sought tax support for Catholic schools. (1) pg. 132
First Plenary Council of American Bishops
Sought to defend public schools against what they believed was a Catholic effort to unite Church and state. (1) pg. 133
"Free School" Tickets
The temperance movement also exacerbated ____________. (1) pg. 134
ethnic tensions.
Changed from a movement for self denial among protestant to a coercive movement aimed at Irish and German immigrants. (1) pg. 134
temperance movement
Resulted in the first state to prohibit the consumption of alcohol. (1) pg. 134
"Maine law"
Debates over prohibition. (1) pg. 134
"Maine Law" debates
The temperance movement encouraged _________. (1) pg. 134
Nativism
Anti-Nebraska, anti-liquor, anti-Catholic, and anti-immigrant sentiments put great pressure on the _____. (1) pg. 135
two party system
Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner were secret fraternal societies that restricted membership to _______. (1) pg. 135
native-born protestants
The Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner merged in 1852 under the leadership of ____________. (1) pg. 135
James Barker
He organized hundreds of nativist lodges all over the country. (1) pg. 135
James Barker
None
Members of James Barker's Order were pledged to vote for no one except _________. (1) pg. 135
Native-born protestants
Because when they were asked about their order by outsiders they were to reply "I know Nothing," these secret nativist orders became known as ________. (1) pg. 135
"Know Nothings"
The antislavery movement, the temperance movement, and nativism all grew from the culture of____________. (1) pg. 137
evangelical Protestantism
Some free soilers saw Catholicism and slavery alike as _______________. (1) pg. 137
repressive institutions.
Conservative proslavery wing of the Democratic Party. (1) pg. 137
"Hunkers"
Because they were competing with free blacks at the bottom of the social order they were intensely anti-Negro. (1) pg. 137
Irish Americans
Free soilers saw the issues in the 1854 elections as "Freedom, temperance, and Protestantism against __________." (1) pg. 137
slavery, rum and Romanism
Many antislavery leaders did recognize the incongruity of nativism with their own ______. (1) pg. 137
ideology
Some believed disfranchising the Irish and the Germans resulted in _________ . (1) pg. 138
Northern Slavery
None
He used the support of Know Nothings to get elected but did not help their cause. (1) pg. 139
Henry Wilson
Political arm of the Know Nothings. (1) pg. 140
American Party
In about half of the Northern states in 1855 the Republican party became the second major party, in the other half the _______________. (1) pg. 140
American Party prevailed
In Baltimore Plug Uglies and Blood Tubs were gangs that became enforcers of Know-Nothing domination at the ______________. (1) pg. 141
Ballot box
Split the Know Nothings along sectional lines. (1) pg. 141
slavery
Henry Wilson led a bolt from the American Party when southerners and northern conservatives passed a plank endorsing the __________. (1) pg. 141
Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Republican party wanted to receive the antislavery Know Nothings if they could do so without sanctioning ________. (1) pg. 141
Nativism
None
Abraham Lincoln saw the claim of loving liberty while at the same time supporting a slavery and anti-catholic, anti foreigner ideology as _________. (1) pg. 141
hypocrisy
Lincoln realized that without the support of the know nothings he could not combat the ____. (1) pg. 141
Nebraska democracy
Salmon P. Chase was willing to support Anti-Catholicism without alienating the ___________. (1) pg. 142
Protestant immigrants
Chase was particularly concerned about maintaining the _________. (1) pg. 142
German vote
Shading toward anti-Romanism but away from generalized nativism helped the Republicans to absorb some Know Nothings without believing they were _______. (1) pg. 142
sacrificing principle
Democrats projected all "Black Republicans" as supporters of _____. (1) pg. 143
Negro equality
Ohio Democrats name for Salmon Chase's candidacy for governor. (1) pg. 143
"Sambo's State Ticket"
Northern democrats believed that the Republican policy of limiting the expansion of slavery would ultimately lead to a program of _________. (1) pg. 143
emancipation
Republicans came to power in Ohio with the support of Know Nothings but without making promises to ________. (1) pg. 143
nativists
Became speaker of the house in 1856, after the house changed its rules to allow for a plurality victory. (1) pg. 144
Nathaniel P. Banks
Banks election as the Speaker of the House marked the ___________. (1) pg. 144
Birth of the Republican Party
The main reason the Republicans were able to become the North's majority party over the Know Nothings was ___________. (1) pg. 144
Bleeding Kansas
Convinced most Northerners that slave power was a greater threat to republican liberty than the pope. (event) (1) pg. 144
Bleeding Kansas
None
Chapter Five
After losing the battle in Congress for a free Kansas, said, “We will engage in competition for the virgin soil of Kansas, and God give the victory to the side which is stronger in numbers as it is in right”. (1) pg. 145
William H. Seward
Chief financial banker of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. (1) pg. 145
Amos Lawrence
He provided aid to farmers from Midwestern states who began to trickle into Kansas. (1) pg. 145
Amos Lawrence
None
Missouri Senator who said, “The game must be played boldly…If we win we carry slavery to the Pacific Ocean, if we fail we lose Missouri, Arkansas Texas and all the territories." (1) pg. 146
David Atchison
Lank, unshaven, unwashed, hard-drinking Missourians had little material interest slavery but even less love for “those long-faced sanctimonious Yankees”. (1) pg. 146
Pukes
None
Pukes were given their name by _____________. (1) pg. 146
Northern born settlers
Governor of Kansas at the beginning of the crisis. (1) pg.147
Governor Reeder
Governor Reeder started out _____________. (1) pg. 147
Sympathetic toward slavery
Legislation that imposed a fine and imprisonment for expressing opinions against slavery, authorized the death penalty for encouraging slave revolts or helping slaves to escape. (1) pg. 147
slave code
People living in Kansas who wanted to keep Kansas as a free state. (1) pg. 147
free-soil Kansans
A term to explain the conflict that was happening with Kansas over whether it should be admitted to the Union as a free or slave state. (1) pg. 149
bleeding Kansas
A posse of 800 men poured into Lawrence, KA and demolished its two newspaper offices, burned the hotel and the home of the elected free-soil governor, and plundered shops and houses. (1) pg. 149
"Sack of Lawrence"
Massachusetts' senator who gave a passionate speech about the situation in Kansas, calling out specific people for their attacks in Lawrence. (1) pg. 149
Charles Sumner
None
Congressman who beat Charles Sumner over the head with a gold-headed cane because of his dislike for the speech Sumner had given. (1) pg. 150
Preston Brooks
Abolitionist led raids in Kansas. (1) pg. 152
John Brown
None
Felt the abolitionists in Kansas must "fight fire with fire". (1) pg. 152
John Brown
Abducted five proslavery settlers and split open their skulls with broadswords as retaliation for the pillaging of Lawrence by proslavery attackers. (1) pg. 152
John Brown
John Brown's killing of proslavery settlers. (1) pg. 153
Pottawatomie massacre
The Civil War in Kansas shaped the context of this election. (1) pg. 153
Presidential Election of 1856
North second major party. (1) pg. 153
Republicans
American Party candidate for president. (1) pg. 154
Millard Fillmore
Received the nomination as the North American party presidential candidate. (1) pg. 154
Nathaniel Banks
Was to lengthen the waiting period of naturalization to twenty-one years. (1) pg. 155
Know-Nothing Plan
None
Won the nomination for presidential candidate for the Republican party in 1856. (1) pg. 155
John C. Fremont
None
It endorsed popular sovereignty and condemned the Republicans as a "sectional party". (1) pg. 157
Democratic platform
None
State's rights, a government of limited powers, no federal aid to internal improvements; no national bank. (1) pg. 157
Democratic platform
They intended to "turn loose… millions of negroes, to elbow you in the workshops, and compete with you in the fields of honest labor, according to Democrats." (1) pg.159
Black Republicans
None
Declared that Fremont's election "will prevent the establishment of Slavery in Kansas, overthrow Slave Rule in the Republic… and put the mark of national condemnation on Slavery." (1) pg. 160
Frederick Douglass
Prominent black leader. (1) pg. 160
Frederick Douglass
It would ensure "for our country a government of the people, instead of a government by an oligarchy; a government maintaining before the world the rights of men rather than the privileges of masters." (1) pg.160
Republican victory
None
Governor of Kansas who temporarily stopped the bleeding in Kansas. (1) pg. 161
John W. Geary
Governor of bleeding Kansas supported by the Democratic party. (1) pg. 161
John W. Geary
None
Kansas Governor, after Geary, appointed by President Buchanan. (1) pg. 163
Robert J. Walker
A slavery clause that was a mandated referendum in Kansas, as a result of the Democratic control of Congress. (1) pg.165
Constitution with Slavery
None
A slavery clause that was a mandated referendum (for Kansas) as a result of the Democratic control of Congress. (1) pg. 165
Constitution with no Slavery
None
Specified that, while "Slavery shall no longer exist" in Kansas, "the right of property in slaves now in this Territory shall in no manner be interfered with." (1) pg. 165
Constitution with no Slavery
Free-soilers term for the mandated referendum on the slavery clause. (1) pg. 165
"The Great Swindle"
Free-soilers saw the choice over the two proposed constitutions for Kansas as a "Heads you win, Tails I lose" proposition. (1) pg. 165
"The Great Swindle"
None
Chapter Six
Sued for his freedom in 1846 on the grounds of prolonged residence in free state and a free territory. (1) pg. 170
Dred Scott
Dred Scott first lost his suit and then won it on appeal in St. Louis county court but this decision was over turned by the _______. (1) pg. 170
Missouri Supreme Court
After the circuit court for Missouri upheld the denial of Dred Scott's freedom his lawyer's appealed to the __________. (1) pg. 171
U.S. Supreme Court
In 1856 the U.S. Supreme Court had a ___________ majority. (1) pg. 171
southern
The first question before the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott Case was as a black man was Scott a ________. (1) pg. 171
Citizen
If Scott was not a citizen he had no right to _______. (1) pg. 171
sue in federal court
The second question in the Dred Scott case was did Scott's prolonged residence in a free state and territory make him _________. (1) pg. 171
free
The third question of the Dred Scott case was did congress have the right to ban slavery in the ____. (1) pg. 171
territories
Many in Washington believed the issue of slavery in the territories would be settled by ________. (1) pg. 172
"judicial statesmanship"
None
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the Dred Scott Case. (1) pg. 172
Roger B. Taney
Southern justices wanted at least one of the two northern justices to support their decision in the _____. (1) pg. 172
Dred Scott case
Used improper influence to get a Northern justice to support the Dred Scott decision. (1) pg. 173
President Buchanan
Justice Taney wanted to defend the South against ___________. (1) pg. 173
Black Republicanism
Justice Taney had actually freed his _______. (1) pg. 173
own slaves
Taney wanted to defend the Southern way of life which he believed was dependent upon ___. (1) pg. 173
slavery
Taney argued that Negros were not citizens because they had not been part of the "sovereign people" who made the ________. (1) pg. 174
constitution
Taney used the founding father's _____________ to verify that they did not intend for blacks to be citizens or have rights. (1) pg. 174
ownership of slaves
Justices John McLean and Benjamin Curtis wrote the ________ in the Dred Scott Case. (1) pg. 175
dissenting opinions
The Taney Supreme Court ruled that blacks were not ________. (1) pg. 174
citizens
Having established that blacks were not citizens Taney could have ______. (1) pg. 175
refused jurisdiction
The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott's time in free territory did not make him _____. (1) pg. 175
free
In the Dred Scott Case the Court ruled that Slaves were not different from any other property and therefore a ban on slavery was an unconstitutional __________. (1) pg. 176
deprivation of property
According to Taney because Congress could not ban slavery, it could not authorize a territorial government to do so. This ruling was intended to kill __________. (1) pg. 176
popular sovereignty
The Dred Scott ruling made the Missouri compromise ____________. (1) pg. 176
unconstitutional
Northern Democrats believed that the Dred Scott Decision was the death blow of _____. (1) pg. 176
Black Republicanism
Justified Republican refusal to recognize the Dred Scott ruling as binding precedent. (1) pg. 177
The Dictum theory
The belief that the Dred Scott decision was a dictum entitled to no moral weight. (1) pg. 177
The Dictum theory
None
Slavery cannot exist a day in the midst of an unfriendly people with unfriendly laws. (1) pg. 178
Freeport doctrine
Douglas' attempt to defend popular sovereignty in spite of the Dred Scott decision. (1) pg. 178
Freeport doctrine
Taney hoped the Dred Scott decision would cripple the ________. (1) pg. 178
Republican Party
The Dred Scott decision actually strengthened the Republican party by further _______. (1) pg. 178
splitting the democratic party
Lincoln warned that in the context of Dred Scott slavery might become ____. (1) pg. 181
lawful everywhere
Sole topic of the Lincoln Douglas debates. (1) pg. 182
slavery
Southern demand for a territorial slave code (federal protection of slavery in the territories) split the _____. (1) pg. 184
Democratic party
To counter Douglas' accusation that he favored racial equality Lincoln said that he believed that "a physical difference between the races will for ever forbid the two races from living together on terms of ______." (1) pg. 185
social and political equality
The Lincoln Douglas debates clarified the differences between _________. (1) pg. 188
northern Democrats and Republicans
Lecompton and Dred Scott "Slave Power" victories produced a _____. (1) pg. 188
backlash
With the disappearance of the American Party most nativist joined the Republicans because they perceived the democrats as the party of _______. (1) pg. 188
Romanism
None
Ended a period of prosperity and speculation that had followed the Mexican War and the discovery of gold in California in the 1840s. (2)
Panic of 1857
The Panic of 1857 resulted in the _______. (1) pg. 189
Depression of 1857-58
Defending slavery on the basis that you need an oppressed class upon which other classes can rest. (1) pg. 195
mudsill theme
The lowest block or base of a structure. (2)
mudsill
The fear of "nigger equality" caused the northern working class to abhor _______. (1) pg. 200
Republicans
In 1859 another struggle in the house over the speaker demonstrated the weakness of the ____. (1) pg. 200
Union
The contest over the Speaker of the House in 1859 opened just three days after _______. (1) pg. 201
John Brown was hanged
Chapter 7
Planned to strike against slavery in its heartland. (1) pg. 202
John Brown
Studied books on guerrilla warfare. (1) pg. 202
John Brown
He was fascinated by the ability of small bands to hold off larger forces in mountainous terrain. (1) pg. 202
John Brown
None
Adopted by a group of 34 blacks and John Brown's group to form a republic of liberated slaves. (1) pg. 202
Provisional Constitution
Most abolitionists committed to fighting the conflict over slavery with _________. (1) pg. 203
nonviolent acts
None
Discredited nonviolence. (1) pg. 203
Fugitive slave law
He changed philosophy of pacifism to "forcible resistance" after the passing of the Fugitive slave law. (1) pg. 203
Frederick Douglass
None
Six men of means and standing that supported John Brown's scheme to invade the South. (1) pg. 204
"Secret Six"
Region where John Brown had planned to invade the South. (1) pg. 205
Southern Appalachians
In Virginia, had a U.S. armory and arsenal which John Brown planned to seize. (1) pg. 205
Harper's Ferry
None
Harper's Ferry is situated on a peninsula formed by the confluence of these rivers. (1) pg. 205
Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers
Wrote by John Brown in the past tense as if his raid had already failed. (1) pg. 205
"Vindication of the Invasion"
Investigating committee chaired by James Mason to investigate John Browns raid on Harper's Ferry. (1) pg. 207
Mason Committee
An antislavery paper that characterized the raids as "one of the rashest and maddest enterprises ever". (1) pg. 208
Worcester Spy
A clergy man declared that Brown made this word "holy in the American language." (1) pg. 210
treason
Organized large anti-Brown meetings. (1) pg. 211
Northern conservatives
Wanted to reassure the South that sympathy for Brown was confined to a noisy minority. (1) pg. 211
Northern conservatives
Said, "Even though Brown agreed with us in thinking slavery wrong, that cannot excuse violence, bloodshed, and treason". (1) pg. 212
Abraham Lincoln
Asked the question, "Why have not the conservative men at the North frowned down the infamous black-republican party?". (1) pg. 212 (publication)
De Bow's Review
None
Instructed its delegates to walk out of the national convention if the party refused to adopt a platform pledging a federal slave code. (1) pg. 214
Alabama Democratic convention
A court decision would not enforce itself. (1) pg. 214
Freeport doctrine
Southerners who were ready to separate themselves from the union. (1) pg. 216
Bolters
Nominated for president on a slave-code platform by the newly formed bolters convention. (1) pg. 216
John C. Breckinridge
Lincoln's speech about the state of affairs in the U.S.
House-divided speech
Large hall built for the Republican convention, filled with huge, enthusiastic crowds of Illinoisans. (1) pg. 218
Wigwam
It pledged support for a homestead act, rivers and harbors improvements, and federal aid for construction of a transcontinental railroad. (1) pg. 220
The Republican Platform of 1860
None
Whig party of 1860. (1) pg. 221
Constitutional Union party
Felt it was best to take no stand at all on the issues that divided North and South. (1) pg. 221
Constitutional Union party
"To recognize no political principle other than the Constitution… the Union… and the Enforcement of the Laws." (1) pg. 221
Constitutional Union party
A term for the Constitutional Union party that had few delegates under sixty years of age. (1) pg. 221
Old Gentlemen's Party
Would give equal rights to blacks upon freedom from slavery. (1) pg. 224
Equal Suffrage amendment
None
Was not passed partially because Republicans played down the moral issue of slavery. (1) pg. 224
Equal suffrage amendment
A view of the Republican party held by some because they thought that exclusion of slavery from the territories meant exclusion of black competition with white settlers. (1) pg. 227
White Man's Party
None
Believed that "the Republican party means to do nothing, can do nothing, for the abolition of slavery in the slave states." (1) pg. 227
William Lloyd Garrison
Moderate from Georgia insisted that, "this Government and Black Republicanism cannot live together…". (1) pg. 229
Benjamin H. Hill
Chapter 8
Organized itself, drafted a constitution and was functioning within three months of Lincoln's election. (1) pg. 234
Confederate States of America
Secession proceeded on a ____________. (1) pg. 234
state by state basis
First state to secede. (1) pg. 234
South Carolina
As fire-eaters hoped South Carolina's secession triggered a ________. (1) pg. 235
chain reaction
With the exception of Texas state conventions did not submit their ordinances of secession to the ___________. (1) pg. 235
voters for ratification
The majority of lower South states favored the domino tactic of individual __________. (1) pg. 235
state secession
Minority in the lower South who wanted some sort of cooperative action preceding secession. (1) pg. 235
"cooperationists"
Group that wanted a joint action to ensure unity among the Cotton South states. (1) pg. 235
"cooperationists"
None
Cooperative secessionist were as adamant about secession as _________. (1) pg. 237
immediate secessionists
Wanted to draw up a list of demands for the incoming President Lincoln including strict enforcement of the fugitive slave law and protection of slavery in the territories. (1) pg. 237
"ultimatumists"
Were in the middle of the cooperationist spectrum. (1) pg. 237
"ultimatumists"
Most conservative of the cooperationists were the _________. (1) pg. 237
conditional unionists
Conditional unionists wanted to give ____________. (1) pg. 237
Lincoln a chance
Believed the South should only secede if the Republicans resort to an "overt act" against southern rights. (1) pg. 237
conditional unionists
Many southerners did not expect a war they believed "the Yankees were cowards and _____." (1) pg. 238
would not fight
Southerners believed little blood would be shed in ______. (1) pg. 238
secession
Cooperationists wanted cooperation before secession but were willing to accept cooperation __________. (1) pg. 239
after secession
Most secessionists believed secession was legal others believed it was an act of ____. (1) pg. 240
revolution
Secessionists who believed secession to be legal did not believe the states had yielded the fundamental attributes of sovereignty to the ____________. (1) pg. 240
federal government
Secessionists who believed secession to be illegal still believed that they had the ______. (1) pg. 240
right of revolution
The right of Revolution exists when a person has been denied their basic ______. (1) pg. 240
rights
Those who defended secession on the right of revolution were mostly ______. (1) pg. 240
conditional unionists
Threatened republican freedoms as the South perceived them. (1) pg. 241
Black Republican rule in Washington
At the secession conventions those who supported delay or cooperation owned (on average) _______. (1) pg. 242
fewer slaves
Cooperationism did not necessarily mean ________. (1) pg. 242
unionism
The partial correlation of cooperationism and low slaveholding caused concern among ___. (1) pg. 242
secessionists
To assure the support of non-slaveholders secessionists worked to convince them that they had a stake in ___________. (1) pg. 243
disunion
None
Non-slaveholders were told that what was at stake was _______. (1) pg. 243
white supremacy
Black Republicans were said to support racial equality and _______. (1) pg. 243
amalgamation
Most southern whites believed it was not possible without slavery. (1) pg. 244
freedom
According to Jefferson Davis the South left the Union to save itself from ________. (1) pg. 245
revolution
Jefferson Davis and others believed that the "Black Republicans" represented a revolution which threatened their very ___________. (1) pg. 245
way of life
Immediate secessionists believed they were enacting a _____________. (1) pg. 245
pre-emptive counterrevolution
Unionists believed in the Domino effect also. If the south was allowed to secede any _____. (1) pg. 246
state could secede for any reason
Lincoln believed that maintaining the union was necessary to prove that popular government was not an ________. (1) pg. 248
absurdity
Some Republicans even abolitionists wanted to let the ____________. (1) pg. 251
South go
It faded as it became clear that there would be no compromise. (1) pg. 252
Go-in-peace sentiment
unsuccessful last-minute effort to avert the Civil War. (1) pg. 252
Crittenden Compromise
Basically would have kept the boundary between slave and free where it had been and would extend it all the way to California. It would also include a fugitive slave law. (1) pg. 252
Crittenden Compromise
The event that triggered disunion was Lincoln's election by a __________. (1) pg. 254
solid North
None
By February of 1861 the main goal of compromise was keep the ________. (1) pg. 254
upper south in the union
The upper South would remain in the union as long as there was no attempt to _______. (1) pg. 255
coerce the South
Even Lincoln favored conciliation as long as it did not include the ___________. (1) pg. 255
extension of slavery
Much of the Confederate Constitution was copied from the ________. (1) pg. 257
U.S. Constitution
Both sides courted the ________. (1) pg. 259
upper south
President of the Confederacy. (1) pg. 259
Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis was Democrat and a secessionist but was not a _____. (1) pg. 259
fire-eater
Vice President of the Confederacy. (1) pg. 259
Alexander Stephens
Hope that the South would return on its own. (1) pg. 261
voluntary reconstruction
Theme of President Lincoln's inaugural address. (1) pg. 262
preservation of the union
Lincoln's continued pledge not to interfere with slavery where it exists. (1) pg. 262
Lincoln's olive branch
Became a symbol of national sovereignty. (1) pg. 263
Fort Sumter
Commander of Fort Sumter. (1) pg. 264
Major Robert Anderson
When Lincoln came to the White house he received a request for supplies from _____ (person). (1) pg. 264
Major Robert Anderson
None
The majority of Lincoln's advisors advised him to evacuate ________. (1) pg. 268
Fort Sumter
Lincoln faced the dilemma of reinforcing and losing more states or not reinforcing and losing the ______. (1) pg. 269
seceded states
The Confederacies chances of survival depended largely on gaining the _________. (1) pg. 273
upper south
By deciding to supply Fort Sumter with provisions only Lincoln put the ball in _____. (1) pg. 273
Davis's court
Davis ordered Beauregard to ____________. (1) pg. 273
reduce Fort Sumter
The news of the attack of Fort Sumter _______. (1) pg. 274
galvanized the North.
Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter on. (1) pg. 274
April fourteenth
On April 15 Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 militia men into ______. (1) pg. 274
national service
Northern Democrats led by Stephen Douglas (after Sumter) _____. (1) pg. 274
supported the war
Died a month after giving a unity speech in favor of the war. (1) pg. 274
Stephen Douglas
Chapter 9
The 1860 presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union party from whom many moderates in the upper South took their cue. (1) pg. 277
John Bell
He supported a "united South" in "the unnecessary, aggressive, aggressive, cruel, unjust wanton war which is being forced upon us" by Lincoln's mobilization of militia. (1) pg. 277
John Bell
None
An ad hoc assembly in Virginia in addition to The Virginia convention that supported secession. (1) pg. 279
Spontaneous Southern Rights Convention
Announced in a fiery speech that the Virginia militia were at that instant seizing the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry and preparing to seize the Gosport navy yard near Norfolk. (1) pg. 279
Henry Wise
Forty-gun steam frigate boat. (1) pg. 279
Merrimack
Stationed at Gosport Navy yard. (1) pg. 279
Merrimack
Commanded the eight hundred sailors and marines stationed at Gosport. (1) pg. 279
Charles McCauley
Ordered all facilities at the yard burned, the cannon spiked, the ships scuttled in order to prevent the Southerners from taking them. (1) pg. 279
Charles McCauley
Confederate general who was initially against secession. (1) pg. 280
Robert E. Lee
None
Confederate General that did not support slavery. (1) pg. 280
Robert E. Lee
None
Fought for the South because of his loyalty to his home state of Virginia. (1) pg. 280
Robert E. Lee
Tennessee short-circuited the convention process by adopting this and submitting it to a referendum in order to achieve secession from the Union. (1) pg. 283
"Declaration of Independence"
fully equipped unit to respond to Lincoln’s call for troops. (1) pg. 285
6th Massachusetts Regiment
It was mobbed in Baltimore and the conflict brought about the first combat casualties during the Civil War. (1) pg. 285
6th Massachusetts Regiment
None
Place of imprisonment for suspected secessionists in Baltimore. (1) pg. 287
Fort McHenry
It brought up the question of suspension of writ of habeas corpus. (1) pg. 288
Merryman case
None
First major battle of Civil War; Confederate victory. (1) pg. 289
First Battle of Manassas
(First Battle of Bull Run)
None
Place where 700 militiamen and their artillery were captured by Unionists. (1) pg. 291
Camp Jackson
It placed the state of Missouri on a war footing. (1) pg. 291
Governor Jackson's bills
None
Converted from unionist to secessionist. (1) pg. 291
Sterling Price
Commander of the soldiers stationed at the U.S. arsenal in St. Louis. (1) pg. 291
Captain Nathaniel Lyon
North’s first war hero. (1) pg. 291
Captain Nathaniel Lyon
Kentuckian who three times devised historic sectional compromises between the North and the South. (1) pg. 293
Henry Clay
Union commander. (1) pg. 294
Ulysses S. Grant
In Kentucky more than anywhere else; brothers were fighting against brothers. (1) pg. 297
Brother's War
Part of the U.S. Constitution which requires the consent of the legislature to form a new state from the territory of an existing one. (1) pg. 298
Article IV, Section 3
Attitude McClellan exhibited in West Virginia. (1) pg. 300
Napoleonic complex
McClellan felt he was the savior for his troops and that he was invincible. (1) pg. 300
Napoleonic complex
10,000 wet, sick, hungry confederate soldiers confronted 3,000 Union troops a few miles south of the Rich Mountain pass. (1) pg. 302
Huntersville
General Lee disappointed the Southerners with a complicated plan for convergence of five separate columns against two Union positions is wet muddy weather. (1) pg. 302
Huntersville
Became a state of the Union on June 20, 1863. (1) pg. 304
West Virginia
Commander of Union forces in Kentucky. (1) pg. 305
William Tecumseh Sherman