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65 Cards in this Set

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acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
(ANUG; also called trench mouth) A severe form of periodontal disease
aflatoxin
Fungal toxin that is a potent carcinogen; found in food made from contaminated grain or peanuts infested with Aspergillus flavus and other aspergilli
amoebic dysentery
Severe, acute form of amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica
ascariasis
Disease caused by a large roundworm, Ascaris lumbricodes, acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated with eggs
Asiatic cholera
Severe gastrointestinal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae; common in areas of poor sanitation and fecal contamination of water
bacterial enteritis
An intestinal infection caused by bacterial invasion of intestinal mucosa or deeper tissues
balantidiasis
Type of dysentery caused by the ciliated protozoan Balantidium coli
bilirubin
A yellow substance, the product of the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells
bongkrek disease
Type of food poisoning caused by Pseudomonas cocovenenans, named for a native Polynesian coconut dish
cementum
The hard, bony covering of the tooth below the gumline
chronic amoebiasis
Chronic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica
cryptosporidiosis
Disease caused by protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium, common in AIDS patients
dental caries
(also called tooth decay) The erosion of enamel and deeper parts of teeth
dental plaque
A continuously formed coating of microorganisms and organic matter on tooth enamel
diarrhea
Excessive frequency and looseness of bowel movements
digestive system
The body system that converts ingested food into material suitable for the liberation of energy or for assimilation into body tissues
dysentery
A severe diarrhea that often contains mucus and sometimes blood or pus
Ebola virus
A filovirus that causes hemorrhagic fevers
enamel
The hard substance covering the crown of a tooth
enteric bacteria
Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, many of which are intestinal; small facultatively anaerobic Gramnegative rods with peritrichous flagella
enteric fever
Systemic infection, such as typhoid fever, spread throughout the body from the intestinal mucosa
enteritis
An inflammation of the intestine
enterocolitis
Disease caused by Salmonella typhimurium and S. paratyphi that invade intestinal tissue and produce bacteremia
enterohemorrhagic strain of Escherichiacoli
One that causes bloody diarrhea and is often fatal; often from contaminated food
enteroinvasive strain
Strain of Escherichia coli with a plasmid-borne gene for a surface antigen (K antigen) that enables it to attach to and invade mucosal cells
ergot poisoning
Disease caused by ingestion of ergot, the toxin produced by Claviceps purpurea, a fungus of rye and wheat
ergot
Toxin produced by Claviceps purpurea, a parasite fungus of rye and wheat that causes ergot poisoning when ingested by humans
feces
Solid waste produced in the large intestine and stored in the rectum until eliminated from the body
fluoride
Chemical that helps in reducing tooth decay by poisoning bacterial enzymes and hardening the surface enamel of teeth
food poisoning
(also called enterotoxicosis) A gastrointestinal disease caused by ingestion of foods contaminated with preformed toxins or other toxic substances
giardiasis
A gastrointestinal disorder caused by the flagellated protozoan Giardia intestinalis
gingivitis
The mildest form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums
ground itch
Bacterial infection of sites of penetration by hookworms
hemorrhagic uremic syndrome (HUS)
Infection with 0157:H7 strain of Escherichia coli causing kidney damage and bleeding in the urinary tract
hepatitis A
(formerly called infectious hepatitis) Common form of viral hepatitis caused by a single-stranded RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route
hepatitis B
(formerly called serum hepatitis) Type of hepatitis caused by a doublestranded DNA virus usually transmitted in blood or semen
hepatitis C
(formerly called non-A, non-B hepatitis) Type of hepatitis distinguished by a high level of the liver enzyme alanine transferase; usually mild or inapparent infection but can be severe in compromised individuals
hepatitis D
(also called delta hepatitis) Severe type of hepatitis caused by presence of both hepatitis D and hepatitis B viruses, hepatitis D virus is an incomplete virus and cannot replicate without presence of hepatitis B virus as a helper
hepatitis E
Type of hepatitis transmitted through fecally contaminated water supplies
hepatitis
An inflammation of the liver, usually caused by viruses but sometimes by an amoeba or various toxic chemicals
hookworm
A disease caused by two species of small roundworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, whose larvae burrow through skin and feet, enter the blood vessels, and penetrate lung and intestinal tissue
large intestine
The lower area of the intestine that absorbs water and converts undigested food into feces
microvillus
(plural: microvilli) A minute projection from the surface of an animal cell
mucin
A glycoprotein in mucus that coats bacteria and prevents their attaching to surfaces
mumps
Disease caused by a paramyxovirus that is transmitted by saliva and invades cells of the oropharynx
orchitis
Inflammation of the testes; a symptom of mumps in postpubertal males
periodontal disease
A combination of gum inflammation, decay of cementum, and erosion of periodontal ligaments and bone that support teeth
periodontitis
A chronic periodontal disease that affects the bone and tissue that supports the teeth and gums
pinworm
A small roundworm, Enterobius vermicularis, that causes gastrointestinal disease
RNA tumor virus
Any retrovirus that causes tumors and cancer
serovar
Strain; a subspecies category
shigellosis
(also called bacillary dysentery) Gastrointestinal disease caused by several strains of Shigella that invade intestinal lining cells
sinusoid
An enlarged capillary
small intestine
The upper area of the intestine where digestion is completed
strongyloidiasis
Parasitic disease caused by the roundworm Stongyloides stercoralis and a few closely related species
tartar
Calcium deposition on dental plaque forming a very rough, hard crust
traveler’s diarrhea
Gastrointestinal disorder generally caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli
trichinosis
A disease caused by a small nematode, Trichinella spiralis, that enters the digestive tract as encysted larvae in poorly cooked meat, usually pork
trichuriasis
Parasitic disease caused by the whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, that damages intestinal mucosa and causes chronic bleeding
typhoid fever
An epidemic enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi; uncommon in areas with good sanitation
verminous intoxication
An allergic reaction to toxins in the metabolic wastes of liver flukes
vibriosis
An enteritis caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, acquired from eating contaminated fish and shellfish that have not been thoroughly cooked
villus
(plural: villi) A multicellular projection from the surface of a mucous membrane, functioning in absorption
whipworm
Trichuris trichiura, a worm that causes trichuriasis infestation of the intestine
yersiniosis
Severe enteritis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica