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76 Cards in this Set

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acute respiratory disease (ARD)
Viral disease that occurs in epidemics with cold symptoms as well as fever, headache, and malaise; sometimes causes viral pneumonia
alveolus
A saclike structure arranged in clusters at the ends of the respiratory bronchioles, having walls one cell layer thick, where gas exchange occurs
antigen binding site
The site on the antibody to which the antigen (epitope) binds
antigen challenge
Exposure to a foreign antigen
antigenic drift
Process of antigenic variation that results from mutations in genes coding for hemagglutinin and neuramindase
antigenic presenting cell
An immunological cell, such as a macrophage, dendritic cell, or B cell, that processes antigen fragments and presents peptide fragments from the antigen on its cell surface
antigenic shift
Process of antigenic variation probably caused by a reassortment of viral genes
antigenic variation
Mutations of influenza viruses that occur by antigenic drift and antigenic shift
auditory canal
Part of the outer ear lined with skin that contains many small hairs and ceruminous glands
bronchial pneumonia
Type of pneumonia that begins in the bronchi and can spread through surrounding tissue toward the alveoli
bronchiole
A finer subdivision of the airconveying bronchi
bronchitis
An infection of the bronchi
bronchus
(plural: bronchi) A subdivision of the trachea that conveys air to and from the lungs
caseous
Characterizing lesions with a “cheesy” appearance that form in lung tissue of patients with tuberculosis
catarrhal stage
Stage of whooping cough characterized by fever, sneezing, vomiting, and a mild, dry persistent cough
cerumen
Earwax
ceruminous gland
A modified sebaceous gland that secretes cerumen
coccidioidomycosis
(also called valley fever) Fungal respiratory disease caused by the soil fungus Coccidioides immitis
consolidation
Blockage of air spaces as a result of fibrin deposits in lobar pneumonia
coronavirus
Virus with clublike projections that causes colds and acute upper respiratory distress
coryza
The common cold
croup
Acute obstruction of the larynx that produces a characteristic high-pitched, barking cough
cryptococcosis
Fungal respiratory disease caused by a budding, encapsulated yeast, Filobasidiella neoformans
cyanosis
Bluish skin characteristic of oxygen- poor blood
diphtheria
A severe upper respiratory disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae; can produce subsequent myocarditis and polyneuritis
diphtheroid
Organism found in normal throat cultures that fails to produce exotoxin but is otherwise indistinguishable from diphtheria-causing organisms
disseminated tuberculosis
Type of tuberculosis spread throughout body; now seen in AIDS patients, usually caused by Mycobacterium avium-intercellulare
DPT vaccine
Diphtheria, killed whole cell pertussis and tetanus vaccine
epiglottitis
An infection of the epiglottis
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
The “Sin Nombre” hantavirus responsible for severe respiratory illness
histoplasmosis
(also called Darling’s disease) Fungal respiratory disease endemic to the central and eastern United States, caused by the soil fungus Histoplasma capsulatum
influenza
Viral respiratory infection caused by orthomyxoviruses that appears as epidemics
laryngitis
An infection of the larynx, often with loss of voice
larynx
The voicebox
legionellas
The causative bacterial agent in Legionnaires’ disease, Legionella pneumophila
Legionnaires’ disease
Disease caused by Legionella pneumophila, transmitted by airborne bacteria
lobar pneumonia
Type of pneumonia that affects one or more of the five major lobes of the lungs
lower respiratory tract
Thin-walled bronchioles and alveoli where gas exchange occurs
mastoid area
Portion of the temporal bone prominent behind the ear opening
miliary tuberculosis
Type of tuberculosis that invades all tissues, producing tiny lesions
mucociliary escalator
Mechanism involving ciliated cells that allows materials in the bronchi, trapped in mucus, to be lifted to the pharynx and spit out or swallowed
mycobacteria
Slender, acid-fast rods, often filamentous; include organisms that cause tuberculosis, leprosy, and chronic infections
nasal cavity
Part of the upper respiratory tract where air is warmed and particles are removed by hairs as they pass through
nasal sinus
A hollow cavity within the skull that is lined with mucous membrane
nocardioforms
Gram-positive, nonmotile, pleomorphic, aerobic bacteria, often filamentous and acid-fast; include some skin and respiratory pathogens
nocardiosis
Respiratory disease characterized by tissue lesions and abscesses; caused by the filamentous bacterium Nocardia asteroides
ornithosis
Disease with pneumonia-like symptoms, caused by Chlamydia psittaci and acquired from birds (previously called psittacosis and parrot fever)
otitis externa
Infection of the external ear canal
otitis media
Infection of the middle ear
parainfluenza virus
Virus that initially attacks the mucous membranes of the nose and throat
parainfluenza
Viral disease characterized by nasal inflammation, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sometimes pneumonia, mainly in children
paroxysmal stage
Stage of whooping cough in which mucus and masses of bacteria fill the airway, causing violent coughing
pharyngitis
An infection of the pharynx, usually caused by a virus but sometimes bacterial in origin; a sore throat
pharnyx
The throat, a common passageway for the respiratory and digestive systems with tubes connecting to the middle ear
pinna
Flaplike external structure of the ear
pleura
Serous membrane covering the surfaces of the lungs and the cavities they occupy
pleurisy
Inflammation of pleural membranes that causes painful breathing; often accompanies lobar pneumonia
Pneumocystis pneumonia
A fungal respiratory disease caused by Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia
An inflammation of lung tissue caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi
Pontiac fever
A mild variety of legionellosis
primary atypical pneumonia
(also called mycoplasma pneumonia and walking pneumonia) A mild form of pneumonia with insidious onset
pseudomembrane
A combination of bacilli, damaged epithelial cells, fibrin, and blood cells resulting from infection with diphtheria that can block the airway, causing suffocation
Q fever
Pneumonia-like disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a rickettsia that survives long periods outside cells and can be transmitted aerially as well as by ticks
respiratory bronchiole
Microscopic channel in the lower respiratory system that ends in a series of alveoli
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Cause of lower respiratory infections affecting children under 1 year old; causes cells in culture to fuse their plasma membranes and become multinucleate masses (syncytia)
sinusitis
An infection of the sinus cavities
tonsilitis
A bacterial infection of the tonsils
trachea
The windpipe
tubercle
A solidified lesion or chronic granuloma that forms in the lungs in patients with tuberculosis
tuberculoid
Referring to the anesthetic form of Hansen’s disease (leprosy) in which areas of skin lose pigment and sensation
tuberculosis
Disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
tympanic membrane
(also called the eardrum) Membrane separating the outer and middle ear
upper respiratory tract
The nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and larger bronchioles
viral pneumonia
Disease caused by viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus
wandering macrophages
Phagocytic cells that circulate in the blood or move into tissues when microbes and other foreign material are present
whooping cough
(also called pertussis) A highly contagious respiratory disease caused primarily by Bordetella pertussis