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75 Cards in this Set

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abortive infection
Viral infection in which viruses enter a cell but are unable to express all of their genes to make infectious progeny
acme
(sometimes referred to as fulminating) During the illness phase of the disease process, the time of most intense signs and symptoms
acute disease
A disease that develops rapidly and runs its course quickly
adherence
The attachment of a microorganism to a host’s cell surface
adhesin
A protein or glycoprotein on attachment pili (fimbriae) or capsules that helps a microorganism attach to a host cell
alpha (a) hemolysin
A type of enzyme that partially lyses red blood cells, leaving a greenish ring in the blood agar medium around the colonies
alpha (a) hemolysis
Incomplete lysis of red blood cells by bacterial enzymes
animal passage
The rapid transfer of a pathogen through animals of a species susceptible to infection by the pathogen
bacteremia
An infection in which bacteria are transported in the blood but do not multiply in transit
beta (b) hemolysin
A type of enzyme that completely lyses red blood cells, leaving a clear ring in the blood agar medium around the colonies
beta (b) hemolysis
Complete lysis of red blood cells by bacterial enzymes
chronic disease
A disease that develops more slowly than an acute disease, is usually less severe, and persists for a long, indeterminate period
coagulase
A bacterially produced enzyme that accelerates the coagulation (clotting) of blood
colonization
Growth of microorganisms on epithelial surfaces such as skin or mucous membranes
commensalism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other one neither benefits nor is harmed by the relationship
communicable infectious disease
(also called contagious disease) Infectious disease that can be spread from one host to another
contamination
The presence of microorganisms on inanimate objects or surfaces of the skin and mucous membranes
convalescent period or stage
The stage of an infectious disease during which tissues are repaired, healing takes place, and the body regains strength and recovers
disease
A disturbance in the state of health wherein the body cannot carry out all its normal functions.
enterotoxigenic strain
Strain of Escherichia coli carrying a plasmid that enables it to make an enterotoxin
enterotoxin
An exotoxin that acts on tissues of the gut
exotoxin
A soluble toxin secreted by microbes into their surroundings, including host tissues
focal infection
An infection confined to a specific area from which pathogens can spread to other areas
gamete
A male or female reproductive cell
hemolysin
An enzyme that lyses red blood cells
hemolysis
The lysis of red blood cells
hyaluronidase
(also called spreading factor) A bacterially produced enzyme that digests hyaluronic acid, which helps hold the cells of certain tissues together, thereby making tissues more accessible to microbes
illness phase
In an infectious disease, the period during which the individual experiences the typical signs and symptoms of the disease
immune complex disorder
(also called immune complex [Type III] hypersensitivity) A disorder caused by antigen-antibody complexes that precipitate in the blood and injure tissues; elicited by antigens in vaccines, on microorganisms, or on a person’s own cells
immunocompromised
Referring to an individual whose immune defenses are weakened due to fighting another infectious disease, or because of an immunodeficiency disease or an immunosuppressive agent
incubation period
In the stages of an infectious disease, the time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms
infection
The multiplication of a parasite organism, usually microscopic, within or upon the host’s body
infectious disease
Disease caused by infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths)
infestation
The presence of helminths (worms) or arthropods in or on a living host
intoxication
The ingestion of a microbial toxin that leads to a disease
invasive stage (or phase)
Disease spreads into body from site of entry causing symptoms to appear
invasiveness
The ability of a microorganism to take up residence in a host
leukostatin
An exotoxin that interferes with the ability of leukocytes to engulf microorganisms that release the toxin
local infection
An infection confined to a specific area of the body
microbial antagonism
The ability of normal microbiota to compete with pathogenic organisms and in some instances to effectively combat their growth
mixed infection
An infection caused by several species of organisms present at the same time
mutualism
A form of symbiosis in which two organisms of different species live in a relationship that benefits both of them
neuron
A conducting nerve cell
neurotoxin
A toxin that acts on nervous system tissues
noncommunicable infectious disease
Disease caused by infectious agents but not spread from one host to another
noninfectious disease
Disease caused by any factor other than infectious agents
normal microflora
Microorganisms that live on or in the body but do not usually cause disease (also called normal flora)
opportunist
A species of resident or transient microbiota that does not ordinarily cause disease but can do so under certain conditions
pathogenicity
The capacity to produce disease
persistent viral infection
The continued production of viruses within the host over many months or years
primary infection
An initial infection in a previously healthy person
prodromal phase
In an infectious disease, the short period during which nonspecific symptoms such as malaise and headache sometimes appear
prodrome
A symptom indicating the onset of a disease
productive infection
Viral infection in which viruses enter a cell and produce infectious progeny
pyrogen
A substance that acts on the hypothalamus to set the body’s “thermostat” to a higher-than-normal temperature
resident microflora
Species of microorganisms that are always present on or in an organism
secondary infection
Infection that follows a primary infection, especially in patients weakened by the primary infection
septicemia
(also called blood poisoning) An infection caused by rapid multiplication of pathogens in the blood
sequela
(plural: sequelae) The aftereffect of a disease; after recovery from it
sign
A disease characteristic that can be observed by examining the patient, such as swelling or redness
St. Louis encephalitis
Type of viral encephalitis most often seen in humans in the central United States
streptokinase
A bacterially produced enzyme that digests (dissolves) blood clots
subacute disease
A disease that is intermediate between an acute and a chronic disease
susceptibility
The vulnerability of an organism to harm by infectious agents
symbiosis
The living together of two different kinds of organisms
symptom
A disease characteristic that can be observed or felt only by the patient, such as pain or nausea
syndrome
A combination of signs and symptoms that occur together
systemic infection
(also called generalized infection) An infection that affects the entire body
toxemia
The presence and spread of exotoxins in the blood
toxin
Any substance that is poisonous to other organisms
transient microflora
Microorganisms that may be present in or on an organism under certain conditions and for certain lengths of time at sites where resident microbiota are found
transposal of virulence
A laboratory technique in which a pathogen is passed from its normal host sequentially through many individual members of a new host species, resulting in a lessening or even total loss of its virulence in the original host
viremia
An infection in which viruses are transported in the blood but do not multiply in transit
virulence
The degree of intensity of the disease produced by a pathogen
virulence factor
A structural or physiological characteristic that helps a pathogen cause infection and disease