Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
actinomycetes
Gram-positive bacteria that tend to form filaments
amantadine
An antiviral agent that prevents penetration by influenza A viruses
aminoglycoside
An antimicrobial agent that blocks bacterial protein synthesis
antagonism
The decreased effect when two antibiotics are administered together
antimetabolite
A substance that prevents a cell from carrying out an important metabolic reaction
antimicrobial agent
A chemotherapeutic agent used to treat diseases caused by microbes
broad spectrum
Referrring to the range of activity of an antimicrobial agent that attacks a wide variety of microorganisms
carbapenem
A bactericidal antibiotic that acts on bacterial cell walls
cephalosporin
An antibacterial agent that inhibits cell wall synthesis
chemotaxis
A nonrandom movement of an organism toward or away from a chemical
chemotherapeutic index
The maximum tolerable dose of a particular drug per kilogram body weight divided by the minimum dose per kilogram body weight that will cure the disease
chemotherapy
The use of chemical substances to treat various aspects of disease
chloramphenicol
A bacteriostatic agent that inhibits protein synthesis
chloroquine
An antiprotozoan agent effective against the malaria parasite
chromosomal resistance
Drug resistance of a microorganism due to a mutation in chromosomal DNA
cross-resistance
Resistance against two or more similar antimicrobial agents through a common mechanism
dilution method
A method of testing antibiotic sensitivity in which organisms are incubated in a series of tubes containing known quantities of a chemotherapeutic agent
disk diffusion method
(also called Kirby- Bauer method) A method used to determine microbial sensitivity to antimicrobial agents in which antibiotic disks are placed on an inoculated Petri dish, incubated, and observed for inhibition of growth
erythromycin
An antibacterial agent that has a bacteriostatic effect on protein synthesis
ethambutol
An antibacterial agent effective against certain strains of mycobacteria
griseofulvin
An antifungal agent that interferes with fungal growth
imidazole
An antifungal agent that disrupts fungal plasma membranes
isoniazid
An antimetabolite that is bacteriostatic against the tuberculosis-causing mycobacterium
macrolide
A large-ring compound, such as erythromycin, that is antibacterial by affecting protein synthesis
mebendazole
An antihelminthic agent that blocks glucose uptake by parasitic roundworms
metronidazole
An antiprotozoan agent effective against Trichomonas infections
minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
The lowest concentration of an antimicrobial agent that kills microorganisms, as indicated by absence of growth following subculturing in the dilution method
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
The lowest concentration of an antimicrobial agent that prevents growth in the dilution method of determining antibiotic sensitivity
molecular mimicry
Imitation of the behavior of a normal molecule by an antimetabolite
narrow spectrum
The range of activity of an antimicrobial agent that attacks only a few kinds of microorganisms
niclosamide
An antihelminthic agent that interferes with carbohydrate metabolism
nitrofuran
An antibacterial drug that damages cellular respiratory systems
notifiable disease
A disease that a physician is required to report to public health officials
penicillin
An antibacterial agent that inhibits cell wall synthesis
polyene
An antifungal agent that increases membrane permeability
polymyxin
An antibacterial agent that disrupts the cell membrane
portal of entry
A site at which microorganisms can gain access to body tissues
primaquine
An antiprotozoan agent that interferes with a protein synthesis
quinine
An antiprotozoan agent used to treat malaria
quinolone
A bactericidal agent that inhibits DNA replication
resistance
The ability of a microorganism to remain unharmed by an antimicrobial agent
reverse transcription
An enzyme found in retroviruses that copies RNA into DNA
rickettsialpox
Mild rickettsial disease with symptoms resembling those of chickenpox; caused by Rickettsia akari and carried by mites found on house mice
selective toxicity
The ability of an antimicrobial agent to harm microbes without causing significant damage to the host
semisynthetic drug
An antimicrobial agent made partly by laboratory synthesis and partly by microorganisms
serum killing power
Test used to determine effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent in which a bacterial suspension is added to the serum of a patient who is receiving an antibiotic and incubated
spectrum of activity
Refers to the range of different microbes against which an antimicrobial agent is effective
streptomycetes
Gram-positive, filamentous, sporing, soil-dwelling bacteria; producer of many antibiotics
streptomycin
An antibacterial agent that blocks protein synthesis
sulfonamide
(also called sulfa drug) A synthetic, bacteriostatic agent that blocks the synthesis of folic acid
superinfection
A secondary infection from the removal of normal microbiota, allowing colonization by pathogenic, and often antibiotic-resistant, microbes
synergism
Referring to an inhibitory effect produced by two antibiotics working together that is greater than either can achieve alone
synthetic drug
An antimicrobial agent synthesized chemically in the laboratory
tetracycline
An antibacterial agent that inhibits protein synthesis
therapeutic dosage level
Level of drug dosage that successfully eliminates a pathogenic organism if maintained over a period of time
toxic dosage level
Amount of a drug necessary to cause host damage
tyrocidin
An antibacterial agent that disrupts cell membranes
zone of inhibition
A clear area that appears on agar in the disk diffusion method, indicating where the agent has inhibited growth of the organism