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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A protein released by some bacteria that inhibits the growth of other strains of the same or closely related species
A plasmid that directs production of a bacteriocin
(also called phage) A virus that infects bacteria
chromosome mapping
The identification of the sequence of genes in a chromosome
A group of genetically identical cells descending from a single parent cell
A protein released by some strains of Escherichia coli that inhibits growth of other strains of the same organism
competence factor
A protein released into the medium that facilitates the uptake of DNA into a bacterial cell
(1) The transfer of genetic information from one bacterial cell to another by means of conjugation pili. (2) The exchange of information between two ciliates (protists)
A brief electric pulse produces temporary pores in the cell membrane, allowing entrance of vectors carrying foreign DNA
F- cell
Cell lacking the F plasmid; called recipient or female cell
F pilus
A bridge formed from an F1 cell to an F2 cell for conjugation
F plasmid
Fertility plasmid containing genes directing synthesis of proteins that form an F pilus (sex pilus, or conjugation pilus)
F' plasmid
An F plasmid that has been imprecisely separated from the bacterial chromosome so that it carries a fragment of the bacterial chromosome
F+ cell
Cell having an F plasmid; called donor or male cell
gene amplification
A technique of genetic engineering in which plasmids or bacteriophages carrying a specific gene are induced to reproduce at a rapid rate within host cells
gene transfer
Movement of genetic information between organisms by transformation, transduction, or conjugation
generalized transduction
Type of transduction in which a fragment of DNA from the degraded chromosome of an infected bacteria cell is accidentally incorporated into a new phage particle during viral replication and thereby transferred to another bacterial cell
genetic engineering
The use of various techniques to purposefully manipulate genetic material to alter the characteristics of an organism in a desired way
genetic fusion
A technique of genetic engineering that allows transposition of genes from one location on a chromosome to another location; the coupling of genes from two different operons
high frequency of recombination (Hfr) strain
A strain of F+ bacteria in which the F plasmid is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome
A hybrid cell resulting from the fusion of a cancer cell with another cell, usually an antibody-producing white blood cell
initiating segment
That part of the F plasmid that is transferred to the recipient cell in conjugation with an Hfr bacterium
lateral gene transfer
Genes pass from one organism to another within the same generation
The destruction of a cell by the rupture of a cell or plasma membrane, resulting in the loss of cytoplasm
The combination of a bacterium and a temperate phage
Pertaining to a bacterial cell in the state of lysogeny
The ability of temperate bacteriophages to persist in a bacterium by the integration of the viral DNA into the host chromosome and without the replication of new viruses or cell lysis
lytic cycle
The sequence of events in which a bacteriophage infects a bacterial cell, replicates, and eventually causes lysis of the cell
monoclonal antibody
A single, pure antibody produced in the laboratory by a clone of cultured hybridoma cells
(also called extrachromosomal DNA) A small, circular, independently replicating piece of DNA in a cell that is not part of its chromosome and can be transferred to another cell
The DNA of a lysogenic phage that has integrated into the host cell chromosome
protoplast fusion
A technique of genetic engineering in which genetic material is combined by removing the cell walls of two different types of cells and allowing the resulting protoplasts to fuse
recombinant DNA
DNA combined from two different species by restriction enzymes and ligases
The combining of DNA from two different cells, resulting in a recombinant cell
resistance "R" gene
A component of a resistance plasmid that confers resistance to a specific antibiotic or to a toxic metal
resistance "R" plasmid
(also called R factor) A plasmid that carries genes that provide resistance to various antibiotics or toxic metals
resistance transfer factor (RTF)
A component of a resistance plasmid that implements transfer by conjugation of the plasmid
restriction endonuclease
An enzyme that cuts DNA at precise base sequences
restriction enzyme
Another term for restriction endonuclease
specialized transduction
Type of transduction in which the bacterial DNA transduced is limited to one or a few genes lying adjacent to a prophage that are accidentally included when the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome
temperate phage
A bacteriophage that does not cause a virulent infection; rather, its DNA is incorporated into the host cell chromosome, as a prophage, and replicated with the chromosome
The transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a bacteriophage
A change in an organism’s characteristics through the transfer of naked DNA
State of permanently changing an organism’s characteristics by integrating foreign DNA (genes) into the organism
transposable element
A mobile genetic sequence that can move from one plasmid to another plasmid or chromosome
The process whereby certain genetic sequences in bacteria or eukaryotes can move from one location to another
A mobile genetic sequence that contains the genes for transposition as well as one or more other genes not related to transposition
(1) A self-replicating carrier of DNA; usually a plasmid, bacteriophage, or eukaryotic virus. (2) An organism that transmits a disease-causing organism from one host to another
vertical gene transfer
Genes pass from parents to offspring
virulent phage
A bacteriophage that enters the lytic cycle when it infects a bacterial cell, causing eventual lysis and death of the host cell