Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/63

Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
activation energy
The energy required to start a chemical reaction
aerobe
An organism that uses oxygen, including ones that must have oxygen
aerobic respiration
Process in which aerobic organisms gain energy from the catabolism of organic molecules via the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
alcoholic fermentation
Fermentation in which pyruvic acid is reduced to ethyl alcohol by electrons from reduced NAD (NADH)
allosteric site
The site at which a noncompetitive inhibitor binds
amphibolic pathway
A metabolic pathway that can yield either energy or building blocks for synthetic reactions
anabolic pathway
A chain of chemical reactions in which energy is used to synthesize biologically important molecules
anaerobe
An organism that does not use oxygen, including some organisms that are killed by exposure to oxygen
anaerobic respiration
Respiration in which the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is an inorganic molecule other than oxygen (e.g., a sulfate, nitrate, etc.)
apoenzyme
The protein portion of an enzyme
autotrophs
Nutritionally deficient mutants that have lost the ability to synthesize a particular enzyme
autotrophy
“Self-feeding”—the use of CO2 as a source of carbon atoms for the synthesis of biomolecules
beta oxidation
A metabolic pathway that breaks down fatty acids into 2-carbon pieces
catabolic pathway
A chain of chemical reactions that capture energy by breaking down large molecules into simpler components
chemical equilibrium
A steady state in which there is no net change in the concentrations of substrates or products
chemiosmosis
Process of energy capture in which a proton gradient is created by means of electron transport and then used to drive the synthesis of ATP
chemoautotroph
An autotroph that obtains energy by oxidizing simple inorganic substances such as sulfides and nitrites
chemoheterotroph
A heterotroph that obtains energy from breaking down readymade organic molecules
chemotheraputic agent
(also called drug) Any chemical substance used to treat disease
coenzyme
An organic molecule bound to or loosely associated with an enzyme
cofactor
An inorganic ion necessary for the function of an enzyme
competitive inhibitor
A molecule similar in structure to a substrate that competes with that substrate by binding to the active site
cyclic photophosphorylation
Pathway in which excited electrons from chlorophyll are used to generate ATP without the splitting of water or reduction of NADP
cytochrome
An electron carrier functioning in the electron transport chain; heme protein
dark reactions
(also called carbon fixation) Part of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide gas is reduced by electrons from reduced NADP (NADPH) to form various carbohydrate molecules, chiefly glucose
electron acceptor
An oxidizing agent in a chemical reaction
electron donor
A reducing agent in a chemical reaction
electron transport
Process in which pairs of electrons are transferred between cytochromes and other compounds
electron transport chain
(also called respiratory chain) A series of compounds that pass electrons to oxygen (the final electron acceptor)
endoenzyme
An enzyme that acts within the cell producing it
enzyme
A protein catalyst that controls the rate of chemical reactions in cells
enzyme-substrate complex
A loose association of an enzyme with its substrate
exoenzyme
(also called extracellular enzyme) An enzyme that is synthesized in a cell but crosses the cell membrane to act in the periplasmic space or the cell’s immediate environment
FAD
Flavin adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms and electrons
feedback inhibition
(also called end-product inhibition) Regulation of a metabolic pathway by the concentration of one of its intermediates or, typically, its end product, which inhibits an enzyme in the pathway
fermentation
Anaerobic metabolism of the pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis
flavoprotein
An electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation
glycolisis
An anaerobic metabolic pathway used to break down glucose into pyruvic acid while producing some ATP
heterotroph
An organism that uses compounds to produce biomolecules
heterotrophy
“Other-feeding,” the use of carbon atoms from organic compounds for the synthesis of biomolecules
holoenzyme
A functional enzyme consisting of an apoenzyme and a coenzyme or cofactor
homolactic acid fermentation
A pathway in which pyruvic acid is directly converted to lactic acid using electrons from reduced NAD (NADH)
Krebs cycle
(also called tricarboxylic acid cycle and the citric acid cycle) A sequence of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that metabolizes 2-carbon units called acetyl groups to CO2 and H2O
light reactions
The part of photosynthesis in which light energy is used to excite electrons from chlorophyll, which are then used to generate ATP and NADPH
metabolic pathway
A chain of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction serves as the substrate for the next
metabolism
The sum of all chemical processes carried out by living organisms
NAD
Nicotinamide dinucleotide, a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms and electrons
noncompetitive inhibitor
A molecule that attaches to an enzyme at an allosteric site (a site other than the active site), distorting the shape of the active site so that the enzyme can no longer function
noncyclic photoreduction
The photosynthetic pathway in which excited electrons from chlorophyll are used to generate ATP and reduce NADP with the splitting of water molecules
oxidation
The loss of electrons and hydrogen atoms
oxidative phosphorylation
Process in which the energy of electrons is captured in high-energy bonds as phosphate groups combine with ADP to form ATP
peptococci
Anaerobes that form pairs, tetrads, or irregular clusters; they lack both catalase and the enzyme to ferment lactic acid
permease
An enzyme complex involved in active transport through the cell membrane
phosphorylation
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, often from ATP; generally increasing the molecule’s energy
phosphotransferase system
A mechanism that uses energy from phosphoenolpyruvate to move sugar molecules into cells by active transport
photoautotroph
An autotroph that obtains energy from light
photoheterotroph
A heterotroph that obtains energy from light
photolysis
Process in which light energy is used to split water molecules into protons, electrons, and oxygen molecule
photosynthesis
The capture of energy from light and use of this energy to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide
porin
A protein in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that nonselectively transports polar molecules into the periplasmic space
quinone
(also called coenzyme Q) A nonprotein, lipid-soluble electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation
reduction
The gain of electrons and hydrogen atoms
surfactant
A substance that reduces surface tension