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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a lipid composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a polar head group; found in all membranes
A chain of many nucleotides
structural protein
A protein that contributes to the structure of cells, cell parts, and membranes
A chemical reaction that produces simpler products from more complex organic molecules
glycosidic bond
A covalent bond between to monosaccharides
fatty acid
A long chain of carbon atoms and their associated hydrogens with a carboxyl group at one end
The chemical breakdown of molecules in which energy is released
Substance that takes part in a chemical (enzymatic) reaction
(1) the propert of an enzyme that allows it to accept only certain substrates and catalyze only one particular reaction (2) the property of a virus that restricts it to certain specific types of host cells. (3) the ability of the immune system to mounta unique immune response to each antigen it encounters
atomic weight
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information from one generation to the next
A long chain of repeating subunits
A chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements
A chain of many amino acids
An atom of a particular element that contains a different number of neutrons
The disruption of hydrogen bonds and other weak forces that maintain the structure of a globular protein, resulting in the loss of its biological activity
complimentary base pairing
Hydrogen bonding between adenine and thymine (or uracil) baess or between guanine and cytosine bases
Two or more substances combined in any proportion and not chemically bound
An electrically charged atom produced when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons
A carbohydrate formed when many monosaccharides are linked together by glycosidic bonds
Matter composed of one kind of atom
a negatively charged ion
A lipid having a four-ring structure, includes cholesterol, steroid hormones, and vitamin D
A carbohydrate formed by the joining of two monosaccharides
An alternative form of a molecule having the same molecular formula but different structure
dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction that builds complex organic molecules
A simiple carbohydrage, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
Referring to a solution with a pH of 7
One of a group of complex, water-insoluble compounds
The substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution
A positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus of an atom
peptide bond
A covalent bond joining the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acid
A complex organic molecule formed from glycerol and one or more fatty acids
The smallest chemical unit of matter
tertiary structure
The folding of a protein molecule into globular shapes
(also called German measles) Viral disease characterized by a skin rash; can cause severe congenital disease
A substance that releases hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water
primary structure
The specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
A means of expressing the hydrogen-ion concentration, and thus the acidity, of a solution
Releasing energy from a chemical reaction
quarternary structure
The three-dimensional structure of a protein molecule formed by the association of two or more polypeptide chains
a polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
hydrogen bond
A relatively weak attraction between a hydrogen atom carrying a partial positive charge and an oxygen or nitrogen atom carrying a partial negative charge
A molecule formed from three fatty acids bonded to glycerol
Two or mote atoms chemically bonded together
polar compound
A molecule with an unequal distribution of charge due to an unequal sharing of elecrons between atoms
lipid A
Toxic substance found in the cell wall of a gram negative bacteria
A positively charged ion
A tightly affixed, secreted outer layer of dinoflagellates that often contains cellulose
ionic bond
A chemical bond between atoms resulting from attraction of ions with opposite charges
chemical bond
The interaction of electrons in atoms that form a molecule
bio chemistry
The branch of organic chemistry that studies the chemical reactions of living systems
covalent bond
A bond between atoms created by the sharing of pairs of electrons
A mixture formed by particles too large to form a true solution dispersed in a liquid
A substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or donates hidroxyl ions
isotope with unstable nuclei that tends to emit subatomic particles and radiation
organic chemistry
The study of compounds that contain carbon
functional group
Part of a molecule that generally participates in chemical reactions as a unit and gives the molecule some of its chemical properties
Any of the nucleic acid bases thymine, cytosine, and uracil
A virus that replicates in cells of the upper respiratory tract and causes the common cold
high-energy bond
A chemical bond that releases energy when hydrolyzed; the energy can be used to transfer the hydrolyzed product to another compound
An uncharged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
The medium in which substances are dissolved to form a solution
(1) the substance on which an enzyme acts. (2) A surface or food source on which a cell can grow or a spore can germinate
atomic number
The number of protons in an atom of a particular element
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid containing only carbon-hydrogen single bonds
(also called gram molecular weight) the weight of a substance in grams equal to the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule of the substance
surface tension
A phenomenon in which the surface of water ehaves like a thin, invisible, elastic membrane
Requiring energy for a chemical reaction
nucleic acids
Long polymers of nucleotides that encode genetic information and direct protein synthesis
The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine
A negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom
(also called basis) Condition caused by an abundance of hydroxyl ions (OH2) resulting in a pH of greater than 7.0
A mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules are evenly distributed and will not separate out on standing
Chemical reactions in which energy is used to synthesize large molecules from simpler components (also called synthesis)
An organic compound consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups
amino acid
An organic acid containing an amino group and a carboxyl group, composing the building blocks of proteins
secondary structure
The folding or coiling of a polypeptide chain into a particular pattern, such as a helix or a pleated sheet
A compound composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen that serves as the main course of energy for most living things
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid that contains at least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms