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80 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
phospholipid
a lipid composed of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a polar head group; found in all membranes
polynucleotide
A chain of many nucleotides
structural protein
A protein that contributes to the structure of cells, cell parts, and membranes
hydrolysis
A chemical reaction that produces simpler products from more complex organic molecules
glycosidic bond
A covalent bond between to monosaccharides
fatty acid
A long chain of carbon atoms and their associated hydrogens with a carboxyl group at one end
catabolism
The chemical breakdown of molecules in which energy is released
reactant
Substance that takes part in a chemical (enzymatic) reaction
specificity
(1) the propert of an enzyme that allows it to accept only certain substrates and catalyze only one particular reaction (2) the property of a virus that restricts it to certain specific types of host cells. (3) the ability of the immune system to mounta unique immune response to each antigen it encounters
atomic weight
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information from one generation to the next
polymer
A long chain of repeating subunits
compound
A chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements
polypeptide
A chain of many amino acids
isotope
An atom of a particular element that contains a different number of neutrons
denaturation
The disruption of hydrogen bonds and other weak forces that maintain the structure of a globular protein, resulting in the loss of its biological activity
complimentary base pairing
Hydrogen bonding between adenine and thymine (or uracil) baess or between guanine and cytosine bases
mixture
Two or more substances combined in any proportion and not chemically bound
ion
An electrically charged atom produced when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons
polysaccharide
A carbohydrate formed when many monosaccharides are linked together by glycosidic bonds
element
Matter composed of one kind of atom
anion
a negatively charged ion
steroid
A lipid having a four-ring structure, includes cholesterol, steroid hormones, and vitamin D
disaccharide
A carbohydrate formed by the joining of two monosaccharides
isomer
An alternative form of a molecule having the same molecular formula but different structure
dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction that builds complex organic molecules
monosaccharide
A simiple carbohydrage, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
neutral
Referring to a solution with a pH of 7
lipid
One of a group of complex, water-insoluble compounds
solute
The substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution
proton
A positively charged subatomic particle located in the nucleus of an atom
peptide bond
A covalent bond joining the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acid
fat
A complex organic molecule formed from glycerol and one or more fatty acids
atom
The smallest chemical unit of matter
tertiary structure
The folding of a protein molecule into globular shapes
rubella
(also called German measles) Viral disease characterized by a skin rash; can cause severe congenital disease
acid
A substance that releases hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water
primary structure
The specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
pH
A means of expressing the hydrogen-ion concentration, and thus the acidity, of a solution
exergonic
Releasing energy from a chemical reaction
quarternary structure
The three-dimensional structure of a protein molecule formed by the association of two or more polypeptide chains
protein
a polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
hydrogen bond
A relatively weak attraction between a hydrogen atom carrying a partial positive charge and an oxygen or nitrogen atom carrying a partial negative charge
triglycerol
A molecule formed from three fatty acids bonded to glycerol
molecule
Two or mote atoms chemically bonded together
polar compound
A molecule with an unequal distribution of charge due to an unequal sharing of elecrons between atoms
lipid A
Toxic substance found in the cell wall of a gram negative bacteria
cation
A positively charged ion
theca
A tightly affixed, secreted outer layer of dinoflagellates that often contains cellulose
ionic bond
A chemical bond between atoms resulting from attraction of ions with opposite charges
chemical bond
The interaction of electrons in atoms that form a molecule
bio chemistry
The branch of organic chemistry that studies the chemical reactions of living systems
covalent bond
A bond between atoms created by the sharing of pairs of electrons
colloid
A mixture formed by particles too large to form a true solution dispersed in a liquid
base
A substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or donates hidroxyl ions
radioisotope
isotope with unstable nuclei that tends to emit subatomic particles and radiation
organic chemistry
The study of compounds that contain carbon
functional group
Part of a molecule that generally participates in chemical reactions as a unit and gives the molecule some of its chemical properties
pyrimidine
Any of the nucleic acid bases thymine, cytosine, and uracil
rhinovirus
A virus that replicates in cells of the upper respiratory tract and causes the common cold
high-energy bond
A chemical bond that releases energy when hydrolyzed; the energy can be used to transfer the hydrolyzed product to another compound
neutron
An uncharged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom
solvent
The medium in which substances are dissolved to form a solution
substrate
(1) the substance on which an enzyme acts. (2) A surface or food source on which a cell can grow or a spore can germinate
atomic number
The number of protons in an atom of a particular element
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid containing only carbon-hydrogen single bonds
mole
(also called gram molecular weight) the weight of a substance in grams equal to the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule of the substance
surface tension
A phenomenon in which the surface of water ehaves like a thin, invisible, elastic membrane
endergonic
Requiring energy for a chemical reaction
nucleic acids
Long polymers of nucleotides that encode genetic information and direct protein synthesis
purine
The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine
electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom
alkaline
(also called basis) Condition caused by an abundance of hydroxyl ions (OH2) resulting in a pH of greater than 7.0
solution
A mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules are evenly distributed and will not separate out on standing
anabolism
Chemical reactions in which energy is used to synthesize large molecules from simpler components (also called synthesis)
nucleotide
An organic compound consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups
amino acid
An organic acid containing an amino group and a carboxyl group, composing the building blocks of proteins
secondary structure
The folding or coiling of a polypeptide chain into a particular pattern, such as a helix or a pleated sheet
carbohydrate
A compound composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen that serves as the main course of energy for most living things
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid that contains at least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms