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37 Cards in this Set

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When are precursor metabolites generated?
During central metabolic pathways (catabolic & anabolic) and curing photosynthesis (Calvin cycle).
Anabolic reactions are necessary to produce _____. As a result what happens?
Building blocks from precursors. They consume a large amount of ATP and NADPH
What are the two things synthesis of building blocks require?
precursor metabolites and other components such as N, S, P, Fe, +
Prokaryotic microbes are considered to not have _____.
organelles.
Most common pathway for CO2 fixation.
Calvin cycle
Carboxylation phase is when...
CO2 is taken from the atmosphere and made into carbohydrates.
Most common enzyme in nature.
Rubisco
Job of Rubisco.
Adds CO2 molecules to a 5C compound from the pentose phophate cycle.
The other substrate requirement by Rubisco other than CO2.
Ribulose 1-5-bisphosphate.
What occurs to the 6C chain immediately after it is formed?
It breaks down into 2 3C chains that is then reduced by NADPH and ATP. The product is then Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate, which then feeds directly into glycolysis.
For every 1CO2 in the Calvin cycle, it requires __ ATP and __ NADPH.
3; 2
How are precursor metabolites formed?
Glycolysis, TCA, pentose phosphate cycle (central pathways).
In nitrogen assimilation, what are the three sources?
N2, NH3, and NO3 (Nitrogen gas, nitrates, and ammonia sources).
In nitrogen assimilation, what is the precursor that all other must be transformed to?
NH3 or NH4 (ammonia or ammonium ions).
What are the ammonia/ammonium converted to in Nitrogen assimilation?
Glutamine or glutamate.
Although N2 gas is very abundant,...
very few organisms (bacteria/archaea) can use it directly.
Nitrogen is often a ________ in free living microbes.
growth limiting
What is nitrogen fixation?
The reduction of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia.
The complex in nitrogen fixation that does the nitrogen fixation.
Nitrogenase - anaerobically reduce N2 to NH3
What is the common outside donor for nitrogen fixation?
Ferredoxin
What are the starting and ending products of nitrogen fixation?
N2 + 8H + 16ATP ---> 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP/Pi
In nitrogen fixation, many of the N2 fixers are _____, so they must....
aerobes; develop schemes to protect nitrogenase from O2.
Some N2 fixers are ______; some form _______; but all are _______.
free-living; symbiotic relationships with plants (ex: legumes) before they can fix N2; prokaryotes.
What happens to most of the ammonia created?
It is turned into glutamate.
Explain the process of creating glutamate.
Alpha ketogluterate has ammonia (NH3) added with the help of NAD(P)H to form the glutamate.
Glutamate serves as.....
the donor of amino groups for all of the amino acids.
Explain the process of creating glutamine.
It is by taking glutamate and adding another amino group by ATP.
Glutamine is the major nitrogen donor for....
all other building blocks that don't get it from glutamate. There are 9 different pathways and is is very highly regulated by glutamine synthetase.
A very important Nitrogen source for many microbes.
Nitrate (NO3).
What are the two enzymes used in reducing NO3 to NH3 (nitrate to ammonia)?
Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase.
Nitrate reductase contains _____ and uses electron donor _____ to make _____.
FAD and Molybdenum; NADPH; nitrite (NO2-).
Nitrite reductase produces ___.
NH3.
Sulfur is needed for ____, ____, & ____.
Amino acids, vitamins, and cofactors.
Many different sources of sulfur (____, _____, & ____) are all converted to ____ that serves as the donor for biosynthesis.
Organic sulfur, H2S, SO4-2; Cysteine.
In phosphate assimilation, phosphate is always transported into cells as _______ or as __________.
PO4-2; part of small molecules that are catabolized.
Phosphate is _________ and there are no ________ involving phosphate in cells.
chemically very stable; redox reactions.
In phosphate assimilation _________ can be formed in the cell and are the basis for ________.
high energy phosphate bonds; storage and transfer of cellular energy.