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244 Cards in this Set

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a bacteria without a cell wall
protoplast
a population of cells which arise from a single cell
colony
a small circular piece of DNA
plasmid
a substance that inhibits or kills microbes on animal tissues
antiseptic
allows for motility of bacteria
flagella
singular: flagellum
an agent that kills microbes
germicide
-cide means to kill
are obligate, intracellular parasites that infect all organisms
viruses
are the same as flagella but much smaller and usually all around the cell
cilia
average generation time for tuberculosis
3 days to 6 weeks
average generation time for bacteria
20 minutes
varies from 10 minutes to 3 days
can be made of DNA or RNA, but never both
viral nucleic acid
can be used interchangeable with disinfection
decontamination
phase where the number of deaths exceeds the number of new cells formed; cells die logarithmically
death phase
condition at which the species grows best
optimal condition
contain storage forms of food
granules
how was the discovery of viruses found
through filtration
do bacteria have cilli
no
do viruses have metabolism
no
do viruses ingest food or excrete waste
no
do viruses reproduce and are they susceptible to mutation
yes
phase where bacteria multiply at the fastest rate possible under the conditions provided
log phase
found in tears, mucous, and wbc's and also destroys the cell wall of bacteria
lysozyme
function is to transfer DNA
pili
singular: pilus
types of media for culturing
gelatin-Koch
agar-Hesse
good for media that cannot be boiled or autoclaved
filtration
help the virus attach to the bacterial cell wall
tail and tail fibers
how many chromosomes do bacteria have
1
inhibits growth of bacterial without killing them
bacteriostatic
killing bacteria
bactericidal
the process of killing pathogenic microbes on or in a material without necessarily sterilizing it. implies to inanimate objects(fomites)
disinfection
kills bacteria by not allowing the cell wall to grow and prohibits cell division
penicillin
3 types of myxoviruses
influenza
measles
mumps
phase which has little or no cell division, but metabolic activity is high
lag phase
a gelatinous covering; slime layer
capsule
refers to all the fluid substances enclosed in the cell membrane
cytoplasm
the process of removing an object or substance free of all viable microbes
sterilization
removing or inactivating pathogenic microbes and their toxic products
decontamination
site of antibiotic activity
cell wall
the orderly increase in the quantity of all components of the bacterial cell
growth
the site of ATP production
mitochondria
the site of protein synthesis
ribosomes
the time required for a cell to divide and its population to double
generation time
phase where there is an equillibrium between cell division and death
stationary phase
name for viruses without an envelope
naked
a complex, semirigid structure responsible fo the shape of the cell
cell wall
instrument used to determined turbidity by measuring the amount of light that passes through a suspension of cells
spectrophotometer
to be living
viable
2 ways to isolate a single colony
streak plate method
pour plate method
the process of freezing and drawing out all water
lyophilization (freeze-drying)
freezing temp
0 degrees C
freezer temp
-20 degrees C
human body temp
37 degrees C
boiling temp
100 degrees C
meaning of -philes
to love
cold-loving microbes
-5 to 20 degrees C
psychrophiles
moderate-temperature-loving microbes
20 to 50 degrees C
mesophiles
heat-loving microbes
50 to 90 degrees C
thermophiles
optimal pH
7 (5-8)
the overall concentration inside and outside the cell is the same
isotonic solution
feeders on others that require an organic carbon source
heterotrophs
self-feeders that use CO2
autotrophs
5 mineral requirements
N,S,P,Na,K
percentage of oxygen needed by bacterial to survive
around 20%
@ sea level like humans
a type of respiration which does not use oxygen and may even be killed by it
anaerobe
organisms that require oxygen to live
obligate aerobes
organisms that utilize oxygen if available but if not, can utilize something else
facultative anaerobes
organisms that require small amounts of oxygen (2-10%)
microaerophiles
are pathogenic to all organisms
viruses
arrangement with a single polar flagellum
monotrichous
arrangement with a tuft of flagella at both ends of the cell
amphitrichous
name which describes bacteria which produce capsules
antiphagocytic
a special resistant, dormant structure formed within a cell that protects a bacterium from adverse environmental conditions
endospore
arrangement with two or more flagella at one pole of the cell
lophotrichous
instructor calls it a ponytail
arrangement where the flagella is distributed over the entire cell
peritrichous
all populations in a habitat
community
all organisms together with their abiotic environment
ecosystem
the study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment
ecology
the role an organism plays in the community
ecological niche
also known as producers
plants
also known as consumers
animals
also known as decomposers
bacteria
a culture media that involves growth of obligate anaerobes
reducing culture
a culture media that involves suppression of unwanted microbes; encouraging desired microbes
selective media
a culture media that makes it easier to distinguish colonies of the desired organism from other colonies growing on the same plate
differential media
usually liquid and provides nutrients and environment conditions that favor the growth of a particular microbe but not others
enrichment culture
reproduction where bacteria form a small initial outgrowth that enlarges until its size approaches that of the parent cell, and then it separates
budding
any material prepared for the growth of bacteria in a lab
culture medium
microbes that grow and multiply in or on a culture medium of bacterial
culture
media in which the exact chemical composition is known
chemically defined media
media in which the exact chemical composition varies slightly from batch to batch
complex media
media used to distinguish among different organisms
differential media
normal reproductive method in which a single cell divides into two identical cells
binary fission
reproduction by aerial spore formation or fragmentation
budding
the ability of an organism to move by itself
motility
destruction caused by rupture of the plasma membrane and the loss of cytoplasm
lysis
a gram-negative bacterium treated to damage the cell wall, resulting in a spherical cell
spheroplast
the double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm in an eukaryotic cell
nuclear envelope
a virus that infects bacterial cells
phage
a protein subunit of a viral capsid
capsomere
a complete, fully developed viral particle
virion
a granule that stores inorganic phosphate and stains red with certain blue dyes
metachromatic granule
a small circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome
plasmid
represents a reserve of inorganic phosphate that can be used in the synthesis of ATP
volutin
an extension of an eukaryotic cell that aids in locomation and feeding
pseudopod
the protein coat of a virus that surrounds the nucleic acid
capsid
an organic catalyst
enzyme
a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes (outside cell) than an isotonic solution
hypertonic solution
a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes (outside the cell) than an isotonic solution
hypotonic solution
the transfer of a chemical group from one molecule to another; transamination
group transference
organic molecules; usually a vitamin
coenzyme
a chemical reaction in which a molecule of water is released
dehydration synthesis
the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a living cell
metabolism
the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones; utilization of ATP to make things for the cell
anabolism
the breakdown of food for energy; glucose to ATP
catabolism
an enzyme consisting of an apoenzyme and a cofactor
holoenzyme
the removal of hydrogen or electrons
oxidation
oxidase
have to occur with reduction
the addition of hydrogen or electrons
reduction
reductase
have to occur with oxidation
the removal of CO2 from a carboxyl, -COOH , group
decarboxylation
decaboxylase
the addition of a phosphate group to an organic molecule
phosphorylation
the protein portion of an enzyme
apoenzyme
the removal of an amino group, -NH2 , from an amino acid to form ammonia
deamination
criteria used to determine the causative agent of infectious diseases
Koch's postulates
the process of endospore formation within a vegetative (parent) cell
sporulation or sporogenesis
process when cellular projections called pseudopods engulf particles and bring them into the cell
phagocytosis
is usually spherical or oval, is frequently the largest structure in the cell and contains almost all the cell's hereditary information (DNA)
nucleus
what are the three types of inhibition on enzymes
competitive
feedback
repressible
controlled inhibition within the cell; excess product ties up the enzyme leading to its production and no one else
feedback inhibition
inhibitor where the substance looks like the substrate
competitive inhibitor
type of respiration which uses oxygen
aerobe
meaning of photo-
light
meaning of -synthesis
the assembly of organic compounds
a complex polysaccharide derived from a marine alga and has long been used in foods like jellies and ice cream
agar
shallow dishes with a lid that nests over the bottom to prevent contamination
petri dishes
their DNA (genetic material) is not enclosed within a membrane and is one circular chromosome
prokaryotes
their DNA is not associated with histones
prokaryotes
they lack membrane-enclosed organelles
prokaryotes
their cell walls almost always contain the complex polysaccharide peptidoglycan
prokaryotes
they usually divide by binary fission
prokaryotes
means prenucleus
prokaryotes
means true nucleus
eukaryotes
their DNA is found in the cell's nucleus, which is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane and the DNA is found in multiple chromosomes
eukaryotes
their DNA is consistently associated with chromosomal proteins called histones and with nonhistones
eukaryotes
they have a number of membrane-enclosed organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, and somtimes chloroplasts
eukaryotes
their cell walls, when present, are chemically simple
eukaryotes
they usually divide by mitosis (replication to make two identical cells)
eukaryotes
substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered themselves
catalysts
an intracellular enzyme
endoenzyme
an extracellular enzyme
exoenzyme
ex: amylase
usually inorganic metal like Fe and Zn
cofactor
enzyme required for reaction to occur
holoenzyme
all of the insomatic activities that occur within a cell
metabolism
how are enzymes named
1 by the substrate that they act upon
2 by the type of reaction they catalyze
the substrate that act upon protein
proteinase
includes casein, pepsin and rennin
the substrate that act upon carbohydrate
carbohydrase
includes lactose to lactase
the substrate that act upon lipids
lipase
the substrate that act upon urea
urease
the removal of H
dehydration
dehydrogenase
inhibition where the enzyme ceases to be made when the product is present
repressible inhibition
the introduction of water; splits the substrate (hydrolysis)
hydration
removal of water
dehydration
the conversion to isomeric forms
isomeration
spikes made of protein
peplomeres
plasmids that can integrate themselves into the chromosomal DNA of the host organism
episomes
the 4 steps of koch's postulates
1 the same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
2 the pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture
3 the pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal
4 the pathogen must be isolated from this inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism
disease-causing
pathogenic
the most frequently used method of measuring bacterial populations
plate count
a type of direct measurement of microbial growth that has the advantage of measuring the number of viable cells
plate count
a type of direct measurement of microbial growth that has a disadvantage because it usually takes 24 hours or more for visible colonies to form
plate count
a method of inoculating a solid nutrient medium by mixing bacteria in the melted medium and adding the medium into a petri dish to solidify
pour plate method
a method of isolating a culture by spreading microorganisms over the surface of a solid culture medium
streak plate method
the steps of the lytic cycle of viruses
1 attachment-phage attaches to host cell
2 penetration-phage penetrates host cell and injects its DNA
3 biosynthesis-phage DNA directs synthesis of viral components by the host cell
4 maturation-viral components are assembled into virions
5 release-host cell lyses and new virions are released
the viral cycle that ends with lysis and death of the host cell
lytic cycle
the viral cycle where the host cell remains alive
lysogenic cycle
the steps of the lysogenic cycle
1 attachment-phage attaches to host cell and injects its DNA
2 phage DNA circularizes
3 phage DNA integrates within the bacterial chromosome by recombination, becoming a prophage
4 lysogenic bacterium reproduces normally
5 occasionally, the prophage may excise from the bacterial chromosome by another recombination event, initiating a lytic cycle
4 methods of maintaining anaerobic organisms
1 using an anaerobic incubator
2 using an anaerobic jar with water and catalyst
3 using thioglycollate broth
4 using the hospital cultures (ex- gc and chlamydia)
which organisms are never isolated on media
Leprosy-Mycobacterium leprae
Rickettsieae
Syphillis-Treponema pallidum
steps of binary fission
1 duplication of internal structures including DNA and ribosomes
2 materials go to ends of the cell
3 cytoplasmic membrane begins to invaginate
4 cell wall begins to invaginate
5 cell separates
to enclosed or become enclosed in
invaginate
the causative agent of anthrax
bacillus anthracis
5 examples of products used for enriched compositions
1 blood
2 beef extract
3 yeast extract
4 serum
5 chocolate-haemophilus
gangrene is an example of what type of organism
anaerobic organism
ultaviolet radiation cannot penetrate what material
glass
how long should fomites be boiled
at least 10 minutes
how long should organisms be autoclaved
for 30 minutes at 121 degrees C at 15 pounds of pressure
how long should organisms be pasteurized
at low temperatures of 60 degrees C for 30 minutes
was used with wine; now also used with milk and beer
pasteurization
type of method for microbial control of endospores
tyndallization
how long should organisms be tyndallized
for 30 minutes for 3 days at 100 degrees C
an example of dry heating (glassware, equipment)
using the dishwasher
due to the risk of fatality, you should never mix what 2 chemical agents
chlorine(clorox) and ammonia
examples of 7 chemical agents
1 alcohol
2 chlorine-clorox
3 iodine-especially with alcohol
4 formaldehyde-for all organisms
5 phenol-phenol coefficient
6 lysol-NH4 chloride
7 hexachlorophene-especially against Staph. aureus
also called the exponential phase
log phase
an additional growth factor (blood for haemophilius)
fastidious
what are the 5 criterias that biological organisms must meet
1 they must reproduce
2 they must ingest food substances and metabolize the food for energy and growth
3 they, in turn, must excrete waste
4 they must react to changes in the environment (known as irritability)
5 they must be susceptible to mutations
1 have no metabolism
2 they do not ingest food nor excrete waste
3 they do not respond to their environment
4 they can reproduce and are therefore, susceptible to mutations
viruses
2 shapes of viral capsids
icoshedron-20 sided polyhedrial (cubical)
helical
since there is no taxonomy(classification) for viruses how are they grouped
1 by type of nucleic acid(DNA or RNA)
2 their shape
3 if they are enveloped or naked
without a ______ the organism would be a glob
cell wall
contains a bilayer of protein and phospholipids
cell membrane
drug resistance is carried on _____
plasmids
the _____ of bacteria determines the gram reaction
cell wall
gram _____ bacteria have a 3 dimensional lattice-work that retains the crystal violet after being treated with acetone-alcohol
positive
gram _____ bacteria loose the crystal violet because of the layering of the cell wall components, which contain large amounts of lipids(which are dissolve by the alcohol)
negative
also called the cell membrane or plasma membrane
cytoplasmic membrane
also called episomes
plasmids
an enzyme that destroys penicillin and located on a plasmid
penicillinase
store phospate to be used for ATP production
volutin granules
a name for organisms that are unable to be engulf by wbc's
antiphagocytic
examples of bacteria that produce capsules
pneumonia-S. pneumoniae
tooth cavities-S. mutans
transfer DNA material from one bacteria to another
pili
examples of bacteria that can produce spores
botulism
tetanus
substrate + enzyme = _____
product(s)
this solution may cause the cell to burst if the wall is weak or damaged (lysis)
hypotonic solution
this soultion moves water out of the cell and causes its cytoplasm to shrink (plasmolysis)
hypertonic solution
what is the only type of solution that a cell can live in
isotonic solution
used by organisms for conjugation
pili
special chromosomal proteins found in eukaryotes
histones
an environment where no nutrients are added and no waste is taken away
closed growth environment
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or in another organism and harms that organism(the host)
parasitism
house the viral nucleic acid
capsid
exception to the koch's postulate rule
embryonated chicken egg or HeLa cells
3 ways to count the increase in cell mass of organisms
1 weight-lyophilize
2 amount of one component-protein
3 turbidity-spectophotometer
3 ways to count the increase in cell number
1 plate count
2 pour plate-viable
3 direct microscopic count-counting chamber-viable and nonviable
organisms that utilize high salt concentrations to grow
halophiles
from ocean
3 examples of sugars
jams,jellies,molds
4 heat methods of microbial control
1 incinerating
2 boiling
3 dry heating
4 autoclaving
2 radiation methods of microbial control
1 gamma rays-cobalt
2 ultraviolet radiation-absorbed by nucleic acids
are specific
enzymes
2 things that are not specific
1 coenzymes
2 cofactors
made of protein and RNA
ribosomes
a site for antibiotic action
ribosomes
storage for excess sugars
granules
contain starch or glycogen
granules
originate inside the cell from a basal body then grow outside the cell through a structure called a hook
flagella
the process by which a hypertonic solution causes the cytoplasm to shrink(plasmolysis)
crenation
a nonliving object that can spread infection
fomite
2 reactions that must occur together
oxidation and reduction
means false feet
pseudopod
the loss of its characteristic 3-dimiensional structue (tertiary configuration)
denaturation
table sugar (sucrose) is the substrate of the enzyme _____
sucrase
the names of enzymes usually ends in -_____
-ase
nonprotein component of an enzyme
cofactor
5 steps of the mechanism of enzymatic action
1 the substrate contacts the active site on the enzyme to form
2 an enzyme-substrate complex
3 the substrate is then transformed into products
4 the products are released
5 the enzyme is recovered unchanged
4 factors that influence the activity of an enzyme
1 temperature-increases as temp increases
2 pH
3 substrate concentration
4 the presence/absence of inhibitors (competitive and noncompetitive)