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30 Cards in this Set

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Phylogeny?
permits grouping of organisms based on the evolutionary lines of descent
Taxonomy?
groups organisms for convenience of laboratory study and hence focuses on phenotypic differences
Linean System?
Animalia: motile, nonphotosynthetic

Plantae: nonmotile, photosynthetic
Haeckel System?
Animalia, Plantae, Protista
Haeckel's Protista
Simple Organization: Protista are:
Unicellular, or if muticellular, they do not develop differentiated tissues (do not have systems of different cell types performing different functions)

Protista included algae, fungi, protozoa and bacteria, including blue-green “algae” (cyanobacteria)
Haeckel's Protista were divided by Stainer due to the electron microscope into two subdivisions...
-Higher Protista (eukaryotic cell structure): Cells similar to those of higher plants and animals and included algae, protozoa and fungi. Eukaryotes - cellular organisms having a membrane bound nucleus where the genome is stored.
-Lower Protista (prokaryotic cell structure): a simplified cell structure that included blue-green algae (more properly, cyaobacteria) and bacteria
Whittaker's 5 kingdoms?
Sub-grouping (indicated by *)?
monera
protista
plantae*
fungi*
animalia*

* = eukaryotic and multicellular
Whittaker's Monera?
Prokaytotic & unicellular includes *bacteriax, *blue-green algaex (cyanobacteria)
Whittaker's Protista?
Eukaryotic & unicellular includes *algae+ & *protozoa+
Whittaker's Plantae?
Photosynthesis
Whittaker's Fungi?
Absorption
Whittaker's Animalia?
Ingestion
Woese's 3 Domains classified through the use of?
-ribsomal RNA

-Bacteria (Eubacteria) = all prokaryotes
-Archaea = All prokaryotes
-Eukarya = All Eukaryotes
Ex of Differential stain?
Gram +/-
Structural stains?
Spore, capsule, flagellum
After preparing smear, drying in air, and heat fixing, what is the next step in preparation? Result on bacteria?
Flood the smear with crystal violet.

All cells are purple
After flooding with crystal violet, add _____ and the result is?
iodine solution

All cells are purple
After adding iodine you ______________? Result?
decolorize with alcohol

Gram positive cells are purple
gram negative cells are colorless
After decolorizing with alcohol you ___________? Result?
Counterstain with safranin

Gram positive cells are purple
gram negative cells are pink/red
Cultural Characteristics?
macroscopic appearance of groth

ie broth, deeps, slants, colonies
Biochemical & Physiological Properties of classification and identification?
Classification at enzyme level

most classification is done at this level
Serological properties of classification and identification?
Immunological, antibodies, etc
Gene studies of classification and identification?
GC/AT ratios, hybridization, sequence analysis
Naming procedure?
1.) First letter of genus name is always capitalized
2.) Species name is not capitalized
3.) Genus AND Species names are always italicized (or underlined)
Average size of a prokaryotic cell?
1 micrometer
Acellular distinguishing characteristics of viruses
DNA OR RNA (not both) + Protein coat
Exception to viruses classification?
Mimivirus has BOTH DNA AND RNA
Acellular distinguishing characteristics of Viroids
Only RNA and no protein coat
Acellular distinguishing characteristics of Prions
Only polypeptides/protein and no protein coat
Two unique properties of mimivirus?
Abnormally large genome size

Has both DNA and RNA (viruses typically only have one or the other)