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44 Cards in this Set

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Study of bacteria? Includes?
Bacteriology

Includes eubacteria and archaebacteria
Study of Viruses? Also includes? All are?
Virology

Includes viroids and prions

All are acelluar
Study of Algae?

Study of Protozoa?

Study of Fungi?
Phycology

Protozoology

Mycology
Subdisciplines of Medical MCB:
Pathogenic Microbiology?

Diagnostic Microbiology?

Veterinary Microbiology?
-host-parasite interactions

-diagnosis of which microorganisms are causative agent of infectious disease

- infectious disease of animals
In _______ more Americans died than were killed in WWI, WWII, Korean, and Vietnam Wars. Know as the________
1918-1919; the Spanish flu
one of greatest killers. 10 million people killed in history. Brought to New World by Spanish. Aztecs susceptible. Vaccination: No new cases since 1977.
Small pox
1/3 pop. of Europe (25 mil) died during one epidemic (1346-50). Antibiotics have now controlled. Lines on ships to dock?
-Black Plague
-Disks were placed on the lines on ship docks to prevent the rats that spread the plague from climbing on to the ship via the ship lines and transporting the disease.
Old Definition of Industrial microbio? New Definition?
-Old: study of fermentation processes (alcohol and production of beer and wine)
-New: conversion of raw materials into desirable end products by selected microorganisms (large scale)
Primary metabolites in industrial microbiology?
production of products necessary for microbial growth like amino acids, organic acids, alcohol, certain enzymes, etc
Secondary metabolites in industrial microbiology?
production of products by the microorganisms not necessary for its growth; like antibiotics, steroids, ethanol,etc
___________ converts into many different types of PCN antibiotics
6 aminopenicillanic
Products now made using the new genetic engineering techniques to produce products cheaply.
First human protein mass produced via microorganisms?
Led to new subdiscipline _________?
-Human Insulin
-Biotechnology
Most important impact of microorganisms?
The use of microorganisms as model systems
Advances in ____________ gave rise to the era of molecular biology and biotechnology
bacterial genetics
1980 Wall Street; transfers genes into rapidly growing microorganism?

________ means within the living
-Genentech, Inc.

-in vivo
Two examples of how biotechnology impacted medicine?
-Interferons

-Somatostatin
Invariant Structures?
all cells have this: cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA, RNA
Are 80S ribosomes invariant?
No. Ribosomes are invariant but the "S" value is variable.
Variant structures
cell wall, mitochondria, chloroplast
Properties of all cells?
metabolism
reproduction
regeneration (repair and replacement)
evolution
____________ defines compartment that makes up the Cell (invariant structure): not closed system; semipermeable
Cell membrane
-Origin of cellular life was______?

-_______ began oxygenation ___ bya?

-Current oxygen levels not achieved until ________ years ago
-3.8 bya

-cyanobacteria; 3bya

-500-800 million
_____% of Earth’s History was exclusively microbial
-80%
Who had the first observation of bacteria and in what year?
1684 Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Who introduced the small pox vaccination and in what year?
1798 Jenner
Who resolved the problem of spontaneous generation and in what year?
1864 Pasteur
Who grew a pure culture of anthrax?
1881 Koch
-Magnification of Leeuwenhoek’s microscope?
-Current Lab Microscope?
-Average coccus size?
-250x; never greater than 300x; 0.8um resolution
-1000x; 0.2um
-0.75micrometers
Resolving power equations?
diameter of smallest resolvable object = wavelength/ 2 X NA
microbial systematics?
classification and nomenclature
Microbial Ecology?
microbial diversity and activity in natural habitats; biogeochemistry
Microbial physiology?
nutrition and metabolism
Cytology?
the branch of biology concerned with the structure and function of plant and animal cells
Molecular Biology?
Study of nucleic acids and proteins
Biotechnology?
production of human proteins by genetically engineered microorganisms
Three things needed for microbiology to develop as a science?
Microscopy

sterilization and aseptic techniques

pure cultures
1845 Berkley?
mold causes Irish potato blight
_______ and _______ showed evidence for the importance of asepsis, leading to Koch's postulates
Semmelweis and Lister
Koch developed his postulates using _____? Is it spore forming?
Anthrax

yes
Koch's Postulate #1
The suspected pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals
Koch's Postulate #2
The suspected organism should be grown in pure culture away from the animal’s body
Koch's Postulate #3
Such a culture when inoculated into susceptible animals, should initiate the characteristic disease symptoms
Koch's Postulate #4
The organism should be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original
Is postulate 1 always true?
no