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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Contains DNA of animal cell.
Nuclear Envelope
Double phospholipid bilayer outside nucleus contains nuclear pores for RNA to exit.
Site where rRNA trancribed and ribosomes are assembled.
Method for aquiring substances from the extracellular environment.
The cell membrane protrudes outward to envelope and engulf particulate matter. The matter is recognized by specific proteins.
Extracellular fluid is engulfed by small invaginations of the cell membrane.
Removal of particles from the cell.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Is where ribosomes attach and make proteins that are to be transported outside the cell. The proteins are translated into the lumen of the ER.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Lipid sythesis and detoxification of some drugs.
Golgi Appartus
Modifies and packages proteins for use in other parts of the cell and outside the cell.
Secretory Vesicles
Contain enzymes, growth factors, or extracellular matrix components. Release cotnents through exocytosis and because of this incorporates into cell membranes and can be used to supply cell membrane with its integral proteins and lipids and membrane expansion.
Contain hydrolytic enzymes that digest substances taken in by endocytosis. Lysosomes come from the Golgi. The hyrdolytic enzymes of lysosomes are activated by a low pH achieved by pumping protons into the interior.
Vesicles in the cytosol that inactivate toxic substances, regulate oxygen concentration, breakdown lipids, and metabolism of nitrogenous bases and carbohydrates.
Moves components within cell and moves cell itself.
Tubulin, Flagella and Cilia; have a 9 + 2 arrangement.
Actin; produce the contracting force in muscle as well as being active in cytoplasmic streaming, phagocytosis, and microilli movement.
Tight Junction
Attachment between cells that prevents the movement of fluid around cells. Example bladder, intestines, kidney
Attachment between cells that join two cells together at a single point and attach directly to the cytoskeleton of each cell. Example Skin
Gap Junction
Attachment between cells that allows exchange of small molecules. Example: Cardiac Muscle
May have evolved according to the symbiotic relationship between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (endosymbiotic theory), contain own genetic information, and are involved in respiration for energy.
Neuronal Communication
Rapid, Direct, and Specific.
Hormonal Communication
Slower, Spread throughout the body, and affect many cells and tissues in many different ways.
Interstitial Fluid
Fluid between cells.
Highly specialized cell capable of transmitting an electrical signal from one cell to another via electrical or chemical means. Uses glucose for energy and is not dependant on insulin for transport of glucose. Contain dendrites (receive signal), cell body, axon (send signal).
Axon Hillock
If stimulus received from dendrite is strong enough generates action potential in all directions including down the axon.
Action Potential
Is a disturbance in the elecric field across the membrane of a neuron.
Resting Potential
established mainly by an equilibrium between passive diffusion of ions and the Na+/K+ pump. A negative charge is established inside the cell and a positive charge outside this makes the potential difference.
Na+/K+ Pump
Moves three positively charged sodium ions out of the cell while bringing in two positively charged potassium ions into the cell.
Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Proteins change configuration when the voltage across the membrane is disturbed. Allow for Sodium to pass to the inside of the cell.
The net influx of sodium because of the voltage gated channels causes an increase the polarity so that it becomes positive.
Voltage Gated Potassium Channels
Less sensitive to voltage change and take longer to open. By the time they begin to open sodium channels begin to close.
K+ flows out of the cell making the cell more negative.
Because potassium channels are slow to close therefore the inside membrane is a little more negative than at resting potential.
All or Nothing Principle
The membrance completely depolarizes or no action potential is genereated. The stiumulus must be greater than the threshold stimulus.
Where neural impulses are transmitted from one cell to another chemically or electrically.
Electrical Synapse
Fast, gap junctions, cardiac muscle, visceral smooth muscle.
Chemical Synapse
Unidirectional, contain vesicles with neurotransmitters, activated when Ca+ attaches.
Synaptic Cleft
Space between pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons.
Brownian Motion
Random motion of molecules.