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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the general formula for an alkane?
Free radicals, as well as carbocations, follow the same pattern of stability which is
3'> 2'> 1'> methyl
Free radical cholination is different from radical halogenation because.
The reaction replaces 1' hydrogens, despite the instability of 1' radicals.
methyl > 1'> 2'> 3'
What is pyrolysis?
Breaking down a molecule with heat.
What is disproportionation?
When a radical transfers a H+ to another radical = alkane + alkene
Nucleophiles are attracted to positively/negatively charged atoms.
When the attacking atom is the same how is nucleophilicity correlated to basicity?
The stronger the base, the stronger the nucleophile.
RO- > HO- > RCO2- > ROH > H2O
In protic solvents large atoms tend to be better/worse nucleophiles b/c.
Better b/c they can shed their solvent molecules and are more polarizable.
CN- > I > RO > HO > Br > Cl > F > H2O
How is nucleophilic strength correlated to basicity in aprotic solvents?
Better base = better nucleophile
F > Cl > Br > I
What are the best leaving groups for substitution rxns?
Weak bases are the best leaving groups
I > Br > Cl > F
Which of the following would be the best solvent for an SN2 rxn?
a. H20
d. CH3CH2Ch2Ch2CH2CH3
C. SN2 rxns work best in aprotic polar solvents. A.P.S. do not solvate the nucleophile so they are free to attack the substrate. In addition, the solvent should be polar to dissolve the reactants.
What is a polar protic solvent?
Give some examples.
Solvents with hydrogen bonding that prevent the rxn from reversing.
Give some examples of polar aprotic solvents.
1. DMF
4. R-CHO (ketones)
SN1 reactions show first order kinetics b/c:
a. the rate limiting step is the 1st step to occur in the rxn
b. the rate limiting step involves only 1 molecule
c. ther is only 1 rate limiting step
d. the reaction involves only 1 molecule
b. An SN1 rxn is 1st order nucleophilic substitution b/c the rate limiting step involves only 1 molecule