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36 Cards in this Set

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Gene
Is a seriesof DNA nucleotides that generally codes for the production of a singl polypeptide or mRNa, rRNA, tRNA. Generally one gene codes for one polypeptide. One exception is poistransciptional processing RNA.
Genome
The entire DNA sequence of an organism. A small variation in a genome can make a big difference.
The Central Dogma
DNA trancribed to RNA, which is translated to amino acids.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Is a polymer of nucleotides.
Purine
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidine
Cytosine and Thymine and Uracil
Phosphodiester bond
Each nucleotide is bound to the next by a phosphodiester bond between the third carbon of one deoxyribose and the phosphate backbone of a single strand of DNA with a 5'-> 3' directionality. The end 3'carbon is attached to an -OH group and the end 5' carbon is attached to a phosphate group.
Gene
Is a seriesof DNA nucleotides that generally codes for the production of a singl polypeptide or mRNa, rRNA, tRNA. Generally one gene codes for one polypeptide. One exception is poistransciptional processing RNA.
Genome
The entire DNA sequence of an organism. A small variation in a genome can make a big difference.
The Central Dogma
DNA trancribed to RNA, which is translated to amino acids.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Is a polymer of nucleotides.
Purine
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidine
Cytosine and Thymine and Uracil
Phosphodiester bond
Each nucleotide is bound to the next by a phosphodiester bond between the third carbon of one deoxyribose and the phosphate backbone of a single strand of DNA with a 5'-> 3' directionality. The end 3'carbon is attached to an -OH group and the end 5' carbon is attached to a phosphate group.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid, identical to DNA except carbon number 2 has hydroxyl group. Three types mRNA, rRNA, tRNA.
mRNA (Messenger RNA)
Delivers the DNA code for amio acids to the cytosol where the proteins ar manufactured.
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
Combines with proteins to form ribosomes, the cellular complexes that direct the synthesis of proteins.
tRNA (Transfer RNA)
Collects amino acids in the cytsol, and transfers them to ribosomes for incorporation into a protein.
Transcription
All RNA is manufactured from a DNA template in a process called transcription. Three stages: Initiation, Elongation, and Termination. Initiation- RNA Polsymerase finds promoter sequence and begins transcribing. Elongation- RNA Polymerase trancribes only one strand of the DNA nucleotide sequence into a complementary RNA nucleotide sequence. Termination- the end of transciption requires special termination sequence as well as special proteins to remove RNA Polymerase.
Activators and Repressors
Regulate gene expression at the level of transcription. Bind to DNa close to the promoter sequence, and either activate or repress the activity of RNA Polymerase.
Operon
Is a sequence of Bacterial DNA containing an operator, a promoter, and related genes. The genes of an operon are transcribed on one mRNA. Genes outside the operon may code for activators and repressors.
Post-transcriptional Processing
Occurs in the nucleus and provides for gene regulation. The primary transcript (initial RNA nucleotide sequence) is changed by either changing or modifying the nucleotide or nitrogenous bases, adding the 5' cap and 3' Poly A tail, and by removal of introns by snRNPs.
Nucleic acid Hybridization
DNA prefers to be double stranded and therefore will look for a complementary strand. Hybridization techniques enable scientist to identify nucleotide sequences by binding a known sequence with an unknown sequence.
Restriction Enzymes
Digest nucleic acid only at certain nucleotide sequences along the chain.
Recombinant DNA
Two DNA fragments cleaved by the same endonuclease can be joined together regardless of the origin of the DNA.
Plasmid (Vector)
Is used to replicate and expand the gene of interest. Usually some sort of bacteria.
Complementary DNA
Is just DNA reverse trancribed from mRNA. The great thing about cDNA is that it lacks the introns that would normally be found in eukaryotic DNA.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Is a fast way to clone DNA. Target DNA is denatured and mixed with many complementary primers. Primers hybridize with DNA fragments. Specialized polymerase replcates DNA fragments.
Southern Blotting
Is a technique used to identify target fragments of known DNA sequence in large population of DNA using nucleic acid hybridization. The recipe is: 1. Chop up some DNA; 2. Use an electric field to spread out pieces accroding to size (electrophoresis); 3. Blot it onto a membrane; 4. Add a radioactive probe made from DNA or RNA and; 5. Visualize with radiographic film.
Northern Blot
Identifies specific sequences of RNA using nucleic acid hyrbridization.
Western Blot
Identifies a protein with antibodies.
Genetic Code
Translates the DNA nucleotide sequence into an aminoacid sequence and ultimately into a protein.
Degenerative
There are more than one series of three nucleotides that may code for any amino acid. This is because There are 4 nitrogenous bases that code for 20 different amino acids. Therefore 4^2 only codes for 16 while 4^3 codes for 64 different combinations.
Unambiguous
Any single series of three nucleotides will code for one and only one amino acid.
Codon
Three consecutive nucleotides on a strand. Start codon AUG (Methionine) and Stop codons UAA, UAG, UGA.
Translation
Is the process of protein sythesis directed by mRNA. 3 Parts Initiation, Elongation, and Termination. Initiation- the mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores and the 5' end attaches to the small subunit of the ribosome. The tRNA brings corresponding anticodon 5'-CAU-3' to the P site and this signals large subunit to join. Elongation- C-terminus of Methione attached to N- terminus of next amino acid carried by tRNA at the A- site. Translocation moves 3 nucleotides down toward the 3' end and the tRNA moves that carried the previous anticodon moves to the E- site where it can exit the ribosome. Termination- Translation ends when a stop codon is reached.