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67 Cards in this Set

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What is Atomic Number?
# protons
What is Mass Number?
# protons + # neutrons
For
A
Z
X

What does each symbol represent?
A: Mass # (protons + neutrons)
X: Element
Z: Atomic # (protons)
Compare the mass of an electron, proton and neutron to one another.
Proton and neutron have almost equal mass; Electron is very small (almost 0)
How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are in nickel-58?
28 protons
28 electrons
30 neutrons
How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are in nickel-60 2+?
28 protons
26 electrons
32 neutrons
How does 1 amu compare to the atomic weight of carbon-12?
1 amu = 1/12 atomic weight of 1 mol of C-12
What does Planck's quantom theory state?
Energy released as EM radiation comes in bundles called QUANTA
Equantum = ?
hf, where h is Planck's constant and f is the frequency of radiation
How does the energy of an electron relate to its radius of orbit?
Directly: If the radius of orbit is decreased, then it's energy will also decrease.
What is an atomic emission spectrum?
Energy released by an electron as it falls from an excited state to its ground state.
What is an atomic absorption spectrum?
When an electron becomes excited, it absorbs energy at a specific wavelength, this is known as an absorption spectrum.
Why is the Borh model inapplicable to atoms other than hydrogen?
Because the model didn't take electron repulsion into account (i.e., atoms with more than 1 electron)
What does the modern quantum model state regarding electron path?
Electrons do not travel in a fixed, circular orbit around a nucleus, rather they are in rapid motion around region orbitals.
What does the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle state?
Impossible to determine the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously as they are constnatly changing.
What does the Pauli Exclusion Principle state?
No 2 electrons in a given atom can possess the same 4 quantum numbers.
What is the maximum number of electrons in an energy level?
2n^2, where n is the principal quantum number.
Is there a greater difference in energy between n=3 and n=4 or n=2 and n=3? Why?
Between n=2 and n=3, because energy between orbitals decreases as the distance from the nucleus increases.
What are the maximum number of electrons in a subshell?
4l+2, where l is the Azimuthal QN
What are all possible values of the magnetic quantum number?
-l to l
What does Hund's rule state?
Within a given subshell, orbitals are filled such that there are a maximum number of 1/2 filled orbitals with parallel spins.
What does the Periodic Law state?
the chemical properties of elements depend on their atomic numbers
What happens to the numbers of valence electrons as you go across a period? What effect does this have on the attraction between valence electrons and the nucleus?
Increase number of valence electrons; increase attraction (more tightly bound)
What happens to the number of valence electrons as you go down a group? What effect does this have on the attraction between valence electrons and the nucleus?
Number of valence electrons remain constant, but there is increased shielding by other filled principal orbitals, so there is less attraction between valence electrons and the nucleus (less tightly bound)
What is the periodic trend of atomic radius?
Atomic radius decreases across a period and increases DOWN a group
What is Ionization Energy? How does Ionization Energy relate to how tightly bound an electron is to its nucleus?
Amount of energy required to remove a valence electron from a gaseuous atom.

The more tightly bound the electron is, the greater the Ionization Energy.
What is the periodic trend of Ionization Energy?
IE increases across a period, and decreases down a group.
What is Electron Affinity?
Electron affinity is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to an atom (ease in which an electron is accepted)
Why do Group I elements have significantly lower Ionization Energies?
Because they only need to lose 1 electron to achieve noble gas configuration.
What is Effective Charge?
The attractive pull of the nucleus for electrons.
What is the relationship between Effective Charge and Electron Affinity?
The greater the Zeff, the greater the Electron Affinity
Why do Group IIA electrons tend to have lower electron affinities?
They have filled s orbitals, they don't need any more electrons (they're stable)
What is the approximate electron affinity of a noble gas?
~0
What is the approximae electron affinity of a halogen?
VERY HIGH b/c brings them to octet
What is electronegativity?
Electronegativity is the attraction an atom feels for electrons IN A CHEMICAL BOND
How does Ionization Energy relate to Electronegativity?
Lower IE means lower EN
What are the characteristic properties of metals? Where are they found on the periodic table?
Shiny, solid at Troom (except Hg), High Tmelt, High Tboil, MALLEABLE, DUCTILE (drawn into wires), GOOD CONDUCTORS (valence e's move freely, low IE, low EN; Left & Middle of PT
What are the characteristic properites of nonmetals? Where are they found on the periodic table?
BRITTLE, NO LUSTER, high IE, high EN, POOR CONDUCTORS; right of PT
What are the metalloids?
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te

Being Sinful Gets Ass Sex and Teets
What kind of cations do Group IA elements form? Group IIA?
Univalent; Divalent
What are the characteristic properties of the transition elements?
Very hard, high Tmelt, High Tboil, MALLEABLE, CONDUCTORS, low IE, variety of positively charged (OXIDATION) states
What atoms are exempt from the octet rule? How many valence electrons would each be 'satisfied' with?
H (2)
Li (2)
Be (4)
B (6)
P, S (8+)} Incorporates d orbital
What are the characteristic properties of ionic compounds?
High Tmelt, High Tboil (strong ESTATIC forces), CONDUCTORS in liquid and aq state, form crystal lattices (maximize attractive forces and minimize repulsive forces of same charge ions)
How does the number of electrons shared in a molecular bond affect the bond length?
Increase number of bonds shared --> decrease length of bond
What is bond energy?
Amount of energy required to separate two bonded atoms
How is bond energy related to the number of electrons shared in a bond?
Increase # electrons shared increases bond energy
What are nonpolar covalent bonds? Provide 4 examples.
Occurs between atoms of same EN, such as in diatomic molecules (H2, O2, N2, Cl2)
Correlate number of effective pairs with both electron and molecular geometry.
2: linear,
3: trigonal planar or bent
4: tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal
5: trigonal bipyramidal
6: octahedral
Provide the bond angles for the following molecular geometries:
Linear
Trigonal planar
Tetrahedral
Trigonal bipyramidal
Octahedral
180
120
109.5
90, 120, 180
90, 180
Describe orbital overlap in sigma and pi bonds.
Sigma : head to head
Pi: parallel
Why are IMF less important in gas phase?
Molecules are too spread apart to exert significan IMF
How many torrs are in 1 atmosphere?
760
What are the conditions for STP?
273K, 1atm
What does Boyle's Law state? If graphed, what would the relationship in the eqn look like?
P1V1=P2V2

Curve (start high to tangential low)
What does Charles' Law state?If graphed, what would the relationship in the eqn look like?
V1/T1=V2/T2

Linear, start low, end high
What does Avogadro's Principle state?
n1/v1 = n2/v2

ALL GASES HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF MOLECULES IN THE SAME VOLUME
What volume does 1 mol of gas have?
22.4 L
Using the Ideal Gas Law, how can the density of a gas be determined?
PV = nRT
n= m/MM
d= m/v

thus, m/v = P(MM)/RT
Using the Ideal Gas Law, how can molar mass be determined?
PV=nRT
n=m/MM

thus, MM= density * RT/P
Under what conditions do real gases deviate from ideality?
Low temperature, High pressure
How do real gases deviate from ideality as a function of pressure? How would this affect predicted volume?
At moderately high pressure, volume is less than IGL predicts because of IMF

At REALLY HIGH PRESSURE, size of particles larger than distance between them, increasing volume
How do real gases deviate from ideality as a function of temperature? How would this affect predicted volume?
At lower temperature, molecules move at a lower velocity, allowing for IMF to exert greater effect, thus, smaller volume
What does Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures state? Define all variables.
Pt = Pa + Pb Pc...
where Pa = PtXa
where Xa = na/ntotal} mole fraction
What are the 5 assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases?
1) Vgas molecs is negligible to Vcontainer
2) No IMF/repulsion
3) Gas particles in continuous motion & collision
4) Collisions are elastic
5) KE gas is directly proportional to temperature
If it is impossible to determine the speed of an individual gas particle, what equation can be used? What does this equation tell us?
Root mean square:
(3RT/MM)^1/2

Determines the avg KE per particle and then the speed to which it corresponds

MUST USE 1J=1kgm^2/s^2kg AND R=8.312
Define diffusion. Provide an equation that describes rate of diffusion of a gas.
Diffusion: when gas molecules in isobaric conds diffuse through a mixture (open perfume bottle)

r1/r2 = ((MM2)/(MM1))^1/2

Where 1 and 2 are for the two gases.
Define effusion. Provide an equation that describes rate of effusion of a gas.
Effusion: flow of gas under pressure from one compartment to another via a small opening

r1/r2 = ((MM2)/(MM1))^1/2

Where 1 and 2 are for the two gases.