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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
tendons
attach skeletal muscle to bone
abducting
moving away from the body
adducting
moving toward the body
origin
point on the bone that is closest to body center that has very little more
insertion
point on the bone that is furthest from the body center
contraction
insertion brought closer to the origin
antagonistic
muscles responsible for opposing movement directions
synergistic
moves the joint in the same direction
fasicles
bundles of contractile tissue
myofibers
muscle fibers in each fasicle
syncytia
fusion of individual cells during development, innervated with a single nerve.
sarcolemma
membrane of myofibers; includes polysaccharides and collagen to help with fusing
t/f
skeletal muscles are multinucleate
t
myofibril
inside the muscle cell, it generates contractile force, contains actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments)
sarcomere
overlapping actin and myosin
H-Zone
thick filament
A-band
full myosin band
I-band
just the actin
M-line
middle line
Z-line
border of the sarcomere
t/f
In vivo, skeletal muscle cells are Ca2+ independent for contraction
f
tropomyosin
blocks the myosin binding site on actin. moved when troponin is activ.
troponin
regulator of tropomyosin (moves it and opens myosin binding site when activated with Ca2+)
Nueromuscular Junction
1. synapse between an axon terminus and a myofiber.
2. has a long invagination of cell membrane to allow for more depolarization at one time.
NT of the motorend plate
ACh
T-tubule
1. AP cannot reach the sarcoplasmic ret. on its own
2. T-tubule allows AP to get to the SR.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
1. specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum
2. contains voltage gated Ca2+ channels
Two ways to increase force of contraction
1. motor unit recruitment
2. frequency summation
Motor unit recruitment
a larger twitch can be obtained by recruiting more motor neurons
Frequency summation
insuffiicient time for Ca2+ to be sequestered, contraction will build on top of each other.
tetanus
1.strongest possible contraction
2 a rapidly repeating series of stimulations
Creatine phosphate
1. energy storage in the myofiber
2. makes ATP when glycolysis and respiration are slow
Cardiac & Skeletal Muscle Similarities
1. thick & thin filaments are organized into sarcomeres (stirated)
2. T-tubules are present and do same function
3. uses troponin and tropomyosin
4. length-tension relationship
Cardiac Muscle distincton from Skeletal Muscle
1. cardiac is mononucleated
2. cardiac connected by intercalated disks
3. cardiac not depednent on stimulation by motor neurons.
4. innverated by the the parasympathetic system (ACh inihibits spon. depolarization
5. AP in cardiac depend not only on VG Na+ channels, but also on VG Na+/Ca2+ channels (slow channels)
Comparing smooth to skeletal muscle
(1 of 2)
1. both use actin/myosin filaments
2. both have Ca2+ triggered contraction
3. smooth does not have branches
4. smooth is mononucleated
5. smooth AP varies depending of action of smooth muscle
6. have only slow Na2+/Ca2+ channels (takes 10-20x longer)
Comparing smooth to skeletal muscle
(2 of 2)
1. thick and them filaments aren't organized into sarcomeres
2. T-tubules not present
3. SR present, but not needed
4. troponin/tropomyosin not present, contraction regulated by MLCK and calmodulin.
5. innervated by motor neurons, but are autonomic
functions of the skeleton
1. support body
2. provide framework for movement
3. protect vital organs
4. store calcium
5. marrow makes RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.
fibroblast
1. all connective tissue comes from fibroblast
2. able to secrete collagen and elastin
fibroblast-derived cells (3)
1. adipocytes
2. chondrocytes
3. osteocytes
Two types of connective tissue
1. loose connective
2. dense connective
Loose connective tissue
1. adipose tissue
2. EC matrix
3. basement membrane
EC matrix
1. material located between cells
2. main ingredients: proteogylcans & GAGs
Basement membrane
sheet of collagen that supports the cell layers
Dense connective tissue
1. bones
2. tendons
3. ligaments
(all contain a large amount of collagen)
Two types of connective tissue
1. loose connective
2. dense connective
Loose connective tissue
1. adipose tissue
2. EC matrix
3. basement membrane
EC matrix
1. material located between cells
2. main ingredients: proteogylcans & GAGs
Basement membrane
sheet of collagen that supports the cell layers
Dense connective tissue
1. bones
2. tendons
3. ligaments
(all contain a large amount of collagen)
Two primary bone shapes
1. flat
2. long
Flat bones
1. location of hematopoesis
2. important for organ protection
Long bones
1. important for support and movment
Diaphysis
main shaft of the long bone
Epiphysis
flared end of the long bone
Structure of bone
either compact or spongy
t/f
most bones are composted of spongy bone surr. by a compact bone
t
Red marrow
1. found in spongy bone of flat bones
2. site of erythropoesis
Yellow marrow
1. found in shafts of long bones
2. filled w/fat and is inactive
Bone is composed of what two principle ingredients?
1. collagen
2. hydroxyapatite
hydroxyapatite
solde material consisting of Ca2+ phosphate crystals
spicules/trabeculae
spikes of bone in spongy bone
basic unit of compact bone structure
haversian system, osteon is a hole called a Haversian canal, which contains blood, lymph, and nerves
Lamellae
surrounding the canal
Canaliculi
branch out from Haversian canal to spaces called lacunae (in ea lacunae is an osteocyte)
How do osteocytes communicate?
via gap junctions
3 types of cartilage
1. hyaline
2. elastic
3. fibrous
Hyaline cartilage
strong & somewhat flexible
i.e. larynx and trachea
Elastic cartilage
elastic
found in ear
Fibrous cartilage
very rigid, found in place where strong support is needed (ie spinal cord & pubic symphysis)
3 types of cartilage
1. hyaline
2. elastic
3. fibrous
Hyaline cartilage
strong & somewhat flexible
i.e. larynx and trachea
Elastic cartilage
elastic
found in ear
Fibrous cartilage
very rigid, found in place where strong support is needed (ie spinal cord & pubic symphysis)
t/f
cartilage is not innervated, but it does contain RBCs
f
cartilage is not innervated and does not contain RBCs
what structure is found during childhood in the bone and where is it located?
1. epiphyseal plate
2. located between diaphysis and the epiphysis
osteoblasts
make bone by laying down collagen and hydroxyapatite
osteoclasts
breakdown bone
PTH
hormone that increases Ca2+ blood levels
Calcitonin
hormone that decreases Ca2+ blood levels
Calcitrol
increases Ca2+ blood levels, but by different means than the PTH
Ligament
connects bones to bones
tendon
connect bones to muscles
joint
one bone meets another
Synarthoses
imovable joint
Amphiarthoses
slightly moveable joint
Diarthoses
provides both movability and support
Synovial fluid
1. lubes moveable joints.
2. kept in the synovial capsule.