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90 Cards in this Set

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A-B'ing
Comparing two programs by setting them up next to each other and switching between them
i.e. two mics at one source
Active Device
Network or circuit that supplies power or voltage gain to a signal
Alignment
Adjusting a device into conformance with published specs
Ambient Noise
Long term sounds existing in the background
Anechoic Chamber
Room designed to provide a reflective free environment
Used for testing audio equipment
Attack Time
Time it takes the signal processor to change in response to the input signal.
Compressors, gates, limiters all have this
Attenuation Pad
Resistive network designed to lower the signal usually by a fixed number of dB's
Found on microphones
Baffle
Partition designed to be an obstruction to sound
GOBO or a flat
Balance
Related levels of two or more signals
Balanced Line
Two signal lines and the ground
Two signal lines are equal, potential and opposite polarity
Bandwidth
The arithmetic difference between upper and lower frequency cutoff of a device
Basic Tracks
Bed tracks
Bi-Amplification
Separating the audio signal into lows and highs, amplifying each separately
Bias
Very high frequency applied to an analog tape to make the tape transfer linear
Bouncing The Tracks
Transferring pre-recorded tracks to one or two tracks to free up space on a multi-track
In the UK this is known as a "reduction mix"
Direct Injection
Using a matching transformer for connecting an instrument to a console
Diaphragm
Moving membrane of a mic that responds to vibration
Delay Line
Device that introduces a delay between input and output
De-Gauser
Used for demagnetizing heads on an analog tape recorder
De-Esser
Compressor designed to reduce sibilance
Decibel
Measure of signal amplitude
Expresses a ratio interference to a fixed quantity
1/10th of a Bel
Q-System
Part of a console by which an engineer routes headphones or monitor to the musician
In the UK known as a fold-back line or monitor mix
Breathing
An audible rising and falling of background noise when using a compressor
Bus
Common signal line or junction at which signal paths are combined into a console
Cancellation
Severe attenuation that occurs when a signal is combined with an opposite polarity copy of itself
Centre Frequency
The highest frequency at which a filter effects the signal
Cocktail Party Effect
Ability of the brain to pick out one conversation out of several, one sound out of several
Coloration
Distortion in frequency response when a signal passes through a device
Compressor
Amplifier whose output gain decreases as an input gain increases
Cross-Talk
In a signal path it is the unwanted presence from an audio track
i.e. track one bleeds into track two
dBFS
How a computer measures decibels
Can only be measured in negative quantities
0 is maximum
dBM
0 dB = 0.775 volts on a 600Ω load
dBU
0.775 volts
regardless of impedance
dBV
0 dB = 1 volt
Direct Sound
Sound that reaches the listener first
Distortion
Unwanted change when signal passes from one place to another
Distortion, Harmonic
Integer multiples
Distortion, Inter-Modulation
Sum and difference tones
Doubling
Slightly delayed line played with a dry line which simulates two people
40-60 ms
Drop-Out
On a tape a momentary drop in signal caused by imperfections on the oxide coating or in wireless audio systems
Dynamic Range
In an audio system this applies to the amplitude
The distance between the noise floor and distortion point
ECHO
A repetition of sound that is distinguishable from the original
EQualization
An internal modification of an audio systems frequency response
fader
Variable level control in a signal path
feedback
Return of a portion of the output signal into the systems input
flutter
High frequency speed variation caused by imperfections in the tape path
flux
Magnetic lines of force
frequency response
A graph that shows amplitude over frequency
generation
Refers to a copy of the master
harmonic
Integer multiples of a fundamental frequency
headroom
Difference between 0 vu and 3% distortion
image shift
Undesired change in the apparent location of a sound system
isolation
Acoustic separation from one sound source to another
leader tape
The clear bit on tape used for splicing
leakage
Unwanted sound of one instrument into the mic of another instrument
masking
Sound becoming inaudible due to presence of another sound of equal frequency and opposite polarity
master
Completed recording used to make all other copies
noise gate
Expander used to attenuate or completely remove low level signal
oscillator
Wave generating device
oxide
Magnetic particles suspended in a binding agent that data is stored on
pan pot
Used to vary proportion in two or more outputs
passive device
Circuit that requires no external power source
patch bay
Series of fundamental input/output jacks used in conjunction with patch cables for routing
polar pattern
Pattern that designates where a mic picks up sound and where it does not pick up sound
pop filter
Exceptionally transparent filter designed to reduce plosives
presence
EQ boost upper to mid-upper frequency range
2KhZ to 5KhZ creating a close up effect
protection copy
Backup of a Master
proximity effect
With a directional mic, a low frequency boost is created when the mic is too close to the sound source
psycho acoustics
The study of the brains perception and reaction to sound
punching in
The practice of recording in small increments over an already recorded track
reflected sound
Sound waves that reach the listener after direct sound
release time
The time it takes for a device to return to its normal gain once the applied effect has been removed or attenuated
saturation
Exceeding the tapes magnetic capacity
shield
A physical device to reduce the affect of spurious electrical or electro-magnetic fields
shock mount
Suspension on a mic stand to reduce vibrations
sibilance
Hissy type of distortion from S-sounds
signal processing device
Audio system used to modify some characteristics of the sound passing through it
signal to noise ratio
Ratio of amplitude to noise inherent in the system
slap back
An audible echo from a reflecting surface
slating
The recording of an announcement of the take number at the beginning of a recording
splice
Point at which two tapes are joined together
standard operating level
0 vu = +4 DBM’s
0 vu = -10 DBV’s
standing wave
Bouncing wave or reflections that reinforce and cancel
sync head
Playback head used during overdubbing
test tape
MRL tape containing a series of test tones for calibration purposes
threshold
The point at which a dynamic processor begins operating
transient
A relatively high amplitude decaying peak signal
unbalanced line
A line consisting of a signal and a ground
wet sound
Subjective description of a sound with effects
wow
Low frequency fluctuation in tape speed causing audible WOW sound
More noticeable on sustained low frequencies