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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the smallest particle that exists in an element
atomic weight
the average of atomic masses of isotopes for a given element
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding
a phenomenon of light by which otherwise identical objects may be differentiated
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions and usually having properties different from those of its consituent elements
covalent bond
a chemical bond produced by the sharing of electrons
crystal form
the external appearance of a mineral as determined by its internal arrangement of atoms
dark/ferromagnesian silicates
silicate minerals containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structure.
What are the differences between dark silicates and nonferromagnesian silicates?
Dark silicates are darker in color and have a higher specific gravity than nonferromagnesian silicates.
a negatively charged subatomic particle that has a negligible mass and is found outside an atom's nucleus
a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical or physical means
energy-levels, or shells
spherically shaped, negatively charged zones that surround the nucleus of an atom
any break or rupture in rock along which no appreciable movement has taken place
a minerals resistance to scratching and abrasion
an atom or molecule that possesses an electrical charge
ionic bond
a chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions formed by the transfer of valence electrons from one atom to the other
varieties of the same element that have different mass numbers; their nuclei contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
light/nonferromagnesian silicates
Silicate minerals that lack iron and/or magnesium.
the appearance or quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral
mass number
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
metallic bond
a chemical bond present in all metals that may be characterized as an extreme type of electron sharing in which the electrons move freely from atom to atom
a naturally occuring, inorganic crystalline material with a unique chemical structure
the study of minerals
Mohs Scale
a series of ten minerals used as a standard in determining hardness
a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is electrically neutral, with a mass approximately equal to that of a proton
the small, heavy core of an atom that contains all of its positive charge and most of its mass
What is the octet rule?
Atoms combine in order that each may have the electron arrangement of a noble gas; that is, the outer energy level contains eight neutrons
two or more minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystalline structures. Examples of this are the diamond and graphite forms of carbon.
a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
radioactive decay
the spontaneous decay of certain unstable atomic nuclei
a consolidated mixture of minerals
silicate mineral
any one of numerous minerals that have the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron as their basic stucture
silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
a structure composed of four oxygen atoms surrounding a silicon atom that constitues the basic building block of silicate minerals
specific gravity
gravity The ratio of a substance's weight to the weight of an equal volume of water
the color of a mineral in powdered form
valence electron
the electrons involved in the bonding process; the electrons occupying the highest principal energy level of an atom