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280 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
absolute zero
The temperature at which molecules do not move, the lowest temperature matter can have. O degrees Kelvin
acceleration
A change in velocity, or the rate at which this change occurs.
acid
A chemically active substance low on the pH scale that gives up hydrogen ions (H+) in a water solution
acid rain
Rainwater polluted with sulfuric acid, nitric acid or both.
activation energy
energy required to start a chemical reaction
air pollution
a high concentration of harmful gases and solids in the air
airfoil
an object, such as a plane's wing, with one flat and one curved surface that causes a pressure difference and a reaction force when moving through air. Air molecules moving over the curved surface move faster and have a lower pressure causing lift
alpha decay
radioactive decay in which alpha particals are released fromt he nucleus of an atom
ampere
SI unit of electrical current abbreviated A or amps.
amplitude
the distance in a transverse wanve between the line of origin and each crest or trough.
astigmatism
a vision disorder in which an imperfectly shaped cornea unevenly bends light entering the eye
atom
the smallest partical of an elementwith all the properties of the element that can combine with other elements to form a molecule
base
a chemically active substance high on the pH scale that gives up hydroxide ions (OH-) in a water solution
basic
having the charecteristics of a base or containing a base
beta decay
radioactive decay in which beta particles are released from the nucleus of an atom.
alpha particles
2 protons and 2 neutrons bonded (no electrons) bonded together, low penetration ability, emitted in alpha decay
beta particles
high energy electrons or positrons emitted in beta decay, fast moving, high penetration
binding energy
energy of the force that holds protons and neutrons together
bioluminesence
the emission of light by living things
biomass
organic matter that can be used as fuel
boiling point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
Boyle's Law
the principle stating that the pressure of a gas in a confined space increases when the volume of the gas is reduced, if its temperature is kept constant.
buoyant force
the upward force acting on an object in a fluid. Buoyant force equals the weight of the water displaced by the object. Also known as Archimedes Principle
calorie
the amount of heatneeded to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree C
carbohydrate
an organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, such as a starch or a sugar, with a ratio of hydrogen and oxygen atoms that is two to one.
catalyst
a substance that initiates or speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the process
central heating system
a network of wires, pipes, ducts, and vents that transfers heat throughout a building from a central location
centripetal acceleration
acceleration caused by movement in a circle
centripetal force
the force necessary to keep an object moving in a circle and that is directed inward toward the center
ceramic
material made by firing clay or other substance at a high temperature
charge
electric force of a proton, electron, or an object having an unequal number of protons and electrons
Charles' Law
the principle stating that th evolume of a gas increases as its temperature is increased if its pressure remains constant
chemical bond
the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together
chemical change
change in the chemical identity of a substance
chemical equation
a combination of chemical symbols and formulas that represent a chemical reaction
chemical reaction
interaction between between substances in which existing chemical bonds break and new bonds form, creating one or more new substances
circuit
a closed continuous path through which electric current flows
cochlea
the coil-shaped organ in the inner ear that is lined with hair cells that detect the motion, sound waves, and send a nerve impulse to the brain
coefficient
the number in a chemical equation that shows how many atoms or molecules of a substance are involved in a reaction
cogeneration
an energy-saving process in which heat and electricity are produced and utilized fromthe same fuel source
colloid
a mixture with particles larger than those in a solution and smaller than those in a suspension colloids are not completely homogeneous but are less heterogeneous than suspensions
combustion
any type of chemical reaction with oxygen that gives off heat or light
compass
an instrument for determing direction with a magnetized needle that aligns itself with the earth's magnetic field.
composite
material made of fibers taht are embedded in a matrix
compound machine
a system of two or more simple machines
Compound
a substance made of two or more chemically combined elements
compression
part of a longitudinal wave where the particals of matter through which the energy wave is moving are pressed together
concave
a surface that is curved or rounded inward, like the inside of a bowl
concentration
the amount of solute relative to the amount of solvent
conduction
the transfer of heat energy or electrons between objects in direct contact
conductor
a substance through which electric charges or heat can move easily
constant
the factor that is kept the same in controlled experiment
constructive inference
the interaction of energy waves in which the same parts of 2 waves match up so that the amplitudes of the waves add to each other
controlled experiment
an experiment with 2 test groups: an experimental and a control group
convection
the transfer of heat energy by the movment of a fluid
convex
a surface that is curved or rounded outwards like the surface of a ball
cornea
the transparent structure that covers the pupil & the iris of the eye
covalent bond
a type of chemical bond formed between nonmetals in which atoms share one or more electrones
crest
the highest point of a transvers wave. Indicates the amount of energy in the wave
crystal lattice
the structure of an ionic solid in which an orderly 3-D pattern of atomes is repeated over & over
cubic meter
the basic SI unit of volume; space occupied by a cube 1m*1m*1m. abreviated: m3.
data
info from which analyses & conclutions can be made
declaration
a decrease in velocity over a period of time
decibel
the unit used to measure sound intensity abbreviated: dB
decomposition reaction
a chemical reaction in which a single reactant breaks down into simpler parts such as elements
destructive inference
the interaction of waves in anplitudes of the waves subtract from each other
density
the measure of how much mass exists in a given volume; density=mass/volume
diffraction
bending of a wave as a result of the interactionbetween the waves & the edge of an object
diode
a vacuum tube through which electrons flow in only one direction
Doppler Effect
a change in wave frequency, & therefore the pitch of a sound, caused by movement of either the source or the receiver
double-replacement reaction
a chemichal reaction in which 2 different ions trade places between different ionic compounds forming 2 new compounds
drag
the force that opposes the movement of an object through a fluid
echolocation
the method used by animals to locate objects by sending and receiving high-frequency sound waves
electric current
flow of electrical charge
electromagnet
a megnet made of a soft-iron core surrouded by a coil of wire through which an electric current is passed
cubic meter
the basic SI unit of volume; space occupied by a cube 1m*1m*1m. abreviated: m3.
data
info from which analyses & conclutions can be made
declaration
a decrease in velocity over a period of time
decibel
the unit used to measure sound intensity abbreviated: dB
decomposition reaction
a chemical reaction in which a single reactant breaks down into simpler parts such as elements
destructive inference
the interaction of waves in anplitudes of the waves subtract from each other
density
the measure of how much mass exists in a given volume; density=mass/volume
diffraction
bending of a wave as a result of the interactionbetween the waves & the edge of an object
diode
a vacuum tube through which electrons flow in only one direction
Doppler Effect
a change in wave frequency, & therefore the pitch of a sound, caused by movement of either the source or the receiver
double-replacement reaction
a chemichal reaction in which 2 different ions trade places between different ionic compounds forming 2 new compounds
drag
the force that opposes the movement of an object through a fluid
echolocation
the method used by animals to locate objects by sending and receiving high-frequency sound waves
electric current
flow of electrical charge
electromagnet
a megnet made of a soft-iron core surrouded by a coil of wire through which an electric current is passed
frame of reference
a place or object that is assumed to be fixed and by which the movement of other objects is determined
frequency
the number of wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
friction
the force of resistance that occurs when movement takes place between any two objects or substances that make contact
fulcrum
the fixed point of a lever
gamma decay
radioactive decay in which no matter is released, but which releases energy called gamma rays
gamma rays
electromagnetic wave with the shortest wave length (highest energy) that is emitted by radioactive materials during a nuclear reaction
gas
matter having no definite shape and no definite volume
geothermal
relating to the heat produced beneath the earth's surface
global warming
the increase of the earth's atmospheric temperature as a result of the greenhouse effect
greenhouse effect
a process that traps energy from the sun by allowing radiant energy to enter a given space, but prevents heat energy from escaping
half-life
the amount of time it takes for half the atoms of a quantity of a radioactive isotope to decay
halogen
any one of the five elements in group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine) that can combine with a metal to form a salt
heat energy
a form of energy produced by the vibration of molecules that can be absorbed, given up, or transferred between objects
hertz
the unit used to measure the frequency of waves abbv. Hz
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which the components are not evenly mixed so that different parts of the mixture have different compositions
hologram
a three dimensional picture formed on photographic film by the interference pattern of a split beam of laser light
homogeneous mixture
a mixture in which the components are evenly mixed so that every part of the mixture is the same as any other. Same as solution
hydrocarbon
an organic compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms
hydroelectric power
electricity generated by the power of moving water
illuminated
an object or substance that is visible because it is reflecting light
incandescent
light produced by a heated object that glows
inclined plane
a slanted surface, simple machine that is used to raise or lower an object.
induction
the transfer of electrons between objects that are not in direct contact
inertia
the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion until acted on by an outside force
infrared
invisible electromagnetic waves with wavelengths slightly longer than red light. Infrared waves have a penetrating heating effect.
inner ear
the part of a human ear that contains the cochlea and the semicircular canals
insulation
a substance that slows the transfer of heat
insulator
a substance through which electric charges or heat can't move readily
integrated circuit
a tiny electric circuit that contains transistors, diodes, and resistors usually located on a small piece of silicon
interference
the effect of two or more waves interacting
internal energy
the reflection of light off the inner surface of an object, as in a tube or optical fiber
ion
an atom or group of atoms having an electric charge as the result of losing or gaining one or more electrons
ionic bond
a chemical bond between a metal and a nonmetal in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another
iris
the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil
isomer
an organic compound that has the same chemical formula for which more than one structure is possible
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different atomic masses
joule
the metric unit that measures work or energy abbreviated J
Kelvin
the SI temperature scale using units equivalent to Celsius degrees and beginning at absolute zero
kilogram
the basic SI unit of mass, abbreviated kg
kinetic energy
energy of motion abbreviated K.E.
laser
a device that produces coherent light of one wavelengththat does not spread out as it travels. An acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation
law of conservation of mass and energy
the principle that the amount of matter and energy in the universe cannot be created or destroyed
lens
a curved transparent object that forms an image by refracting light passing through it
lever
a simple machine that does work by moving around a fixed point
lift
upward force acting on an airfoil moving through the air
first-class lever
the fulcrumis always in between the resistance force & the effort force
second-class lever
the resistance is in between the fulcrum & the effort force
third-class lever
the effort is in between the fulcrum & the resistance force
lipid
an organic compound, such as fats, oils or waxes, that has long hydrocarbon chains & does not dissolve in water
liquid
has a definite volume but not a definite shape
liter
a metric unit of volume
longitudinal wave
energy wave consisting a series of compresstions & rarefactions that moves through a medium in the same direction the wave is travelling
luminous
referring to an object that produces light
luster
a property of metal that enables it to reflect light from the surface
machine
a device that makes work easier by changing the direction or distance an object moves or by reducing the amount of force needed to do work
magnetic domain
magnetic regions in which the poles of individual atoms line up & group together
magnetic field
the area of magnetic force surrounding a magnet
magnetic pole
one of the two end of a magnet where magnetic force is stronger
malleability
the ability to be flattened, bent, & shapedw/o breaking
mass
the amount of mater that an object contains
matrix
material in which another material or substance is embedded in a composite
matter
any object or substance that has mass & takes up space
machanical advantage
the advantage gained by using a machine to transmit force
machanical efficiency
the measurement that compares a machine's work output w/ its input
melting point
the temperature at which a substance changes fron a solid to a liquid
metalloid
an element that has the properties of both a metal & a nonmetal
metallurgy
the process & science of taking metals from the earth & making then into useful products
meter
the basic SI unit of length
microprocessor
integrated circuit that can hold all of a computer's problem-solving capabilities on one small silicon chip
middle ear
the part of the human ear between the eardrum & the oval window cantaining the hammer, avil & stirrup
molecule
2 or more chemically bonded atoms the smallest part of a compound having all the properties of the compound
momentum
the product of the mass & velosity of an object
neutralization
a process in which bases & acids react to form products that are nutral
neutron
located in an atom's nucleus that has no charge
newton
the basic SI unit of force
noise
an unwanted sound that may disturb mental or phsical health
nonrenewable resource
a natrual resource that can't be replaced
nuclear fission
splitting of an atom's nucleus into 2 smaller nuclei releasing a large amount of energy
nuclear force
the force within the nucleus of the atom that holds that holds the parts of the nucleus together
nuclear fusion
joining of 2 or more atoms' nuclei, which releases an enormous amount of energy
nucleus
the central region of an atom where neutrons & protrons are located
ohm
the SIunit of resistance force
opaque
referring to a material that absorbs most light that strikes it
optic nerve
nerve fibers connecting the rods & cones of the retina to the brain
optical fiber
a thin, flexible, glass or plastic fiber that tansmits light throughout its length by internal reflection
ore
a mineral containing a large amount of a metal compound
organtic compound
a carbon compound that occurs naturally in all living things
outer ear
the part of the human ear that is visible from the exterior & inculeds the ear canal & the eardrum
overtone
one of the higher pitched tones produced when a note is sounded & that contributes to the timbre of the sound
particle model
the idea stating that all matter is made of tiny particles which are in constant motion
periodic
describing a regulare, repeating pattern such as the periodic table of the elements or the periodic phase of the moon
permanent magnet
a magnet that retains its magnetism after the magnetizing force is removed
petrochemicals
synthetic materials and chemical substances produced from petroleum
petroleum
a dark oily liquid mixture of hydrocarbons formed from organic material over millions of years, crude oil
pH
a measurement that shows how acidic or basic a solution is
photoelectric effect
the release of electrons by certain substances such as metals when struck by high energy light
photon
the packet of light energy given off by an atom
photosynthesis
a chemical process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and energy from the sun to make oxygen and glucose for energy
physical change
a change in a substance's physical properties but not its chemical identity
pitch
the property of sound determined by the frequency of the sound waves producing it, highness or lowness of sound
plasma
the fourth phase of matter having unique properties and formed at very high temperatures
polarized
referring to light waves taht are parallel usually as a result of passing through a special filter
polyatomic ion
a group of covalently bonded atoms that has an electric charge due to losing or gaining one or more electrons
polymer
a large molecule made of a chain of many smaller units connected by covalent bonds
potential energy
energy due to the position of an object or the chemical bonds in a substance abbreviated P.E.
power
the rate at which work is done measured in watts. Power = work/time
pressure
the force exerted on a surface Pressure=force/area
product
a substance produced by a chemical reaction
protein
an organic compound existing as a large complex molecule made of amino acids
proton
a subatomic particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus of an atom
pulley
a simple machine made of a rope wrapped around a grooved wheel
pupil
the opening through which light enters the eye
r-value
the measurement of a material's ability to stop the flow of heat
radiation
the transfer of energy by infrared rays
radioactive decay
the process by which an unstable nucleus of a radioactive element breaks down spontaneously
radioactivity
the release of particles and energy from the nucleus of an atom
rarefaction
part of a longitudinal wave where the particles of matter through which the wave is moving are spread apart
reactant
the raw material in a chemical reaction, shown on the left side of a chemical equation
real image
an image formed by converging light rays
rectifier
a vacuum tube diode taht changes alternating current into direct current
reflection
the action of a wave when it bounces off a surface. Also the image formed by light rays reflecting off a surface
refraction
bending of a wave caused by the change of speed that occurs when a wave moves from one medium to another
refrigerant
a chemical that evaporates at a low temperature and removes heat as it changes from a liquid to a gas
renewable resource
a natural resource that is replaced continuously bu natural cycles or processes
resistance
the force opposing the flow of electric current abbreviated R
resonance
the vibration of an object at its natural frequency
respiration
the chemical process in living organisms during which oxygen reacts with glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP
retina
the inner layer of the back of the eye where light sensitive cells are located
salt
an ionic compound made of a metal and a nonmetal and formed when an acid and base react
saturated hydrocarbon
hydrocarbon in which all carbon atoms are joined by single covalent bonds
saturated
referring to a solution that contains as much of the solute as can be dissolved at a given temperature and pressure
scientific notation
the method of expressing a very large or very small number by multiplying a number between 1 and 10 by some power of 10
sciera
the visible white part of the eye surrounding the iris
semiconductor
material whose electric conductivity is between that of a conductor and that of an insulator
silt
very fine particles of earth material
simple machine
a machine that does work in one movement
single-replacement reaction
a chemical reaction in which atoms of one element replace atoms of another element in a compound, producing a different element & a different compound
smog
a type of air pollution consisting primarily of smoke & fog
software
programs that instruct computer hardware to perform certain tasks
solar cell
a device containing a semiconductor that converts sunlight into electricity
solid
a definite shape & volume
solubility
the ability of a substance to dissolved in another substance
solute
the component of a solution that is dissolved in the solvent
solution
a mixture in which the components are evenly mixed so that every part of the mixture is the same as any other
solvent
a component of a solution in which the solute is dissolved
sonar
the technique of using ultrasonic waves to locate underwater objects
sonogram
the imagine created by ultrasonic waves reflected off the soft tissue of living organism
sound waves
the longitudinal wave in matter that can be heard
specific heat
the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1*C
speed
the distance travelled in a given amount of time
strong force
a nuclear force that holds prtons & neutrons together by holding their quarks together
substituted hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon in which at least 1 hydrogen atom is replaced by another functional group
supersaturated
referring to a solution that contains more solute than could normaly be dissolved at a given temp. & pressure
suspension
mixture in which some particles are relatively large & will settle out when the mixture isn't moving
synthesis reaction
a chemical reaction in which 2 substances combine to form a 3rd more complex substance
technology
the use of sciectific or technical knowledge to solve a problem or achieve a practical purpose
temperature
the amount of heat energy in a substance
terminal velocity
the max velocity of a falling object
thermal expamtion
an increase in the volume of a substance due to an increase in heat
thermal pollution
increase in water temp that harms living things
thrust
force that moves an object forward
timbre
the quality of a determined by the combination of different frequencies of the sound waves that make up the sound
transistor
a semiconductor devicethat contains layered n-type & p-type semiconducting materials
translucent
referring to a material that transmits some light but scatters it so that a sharp image is not seen
transmutation
the process in which an element changes into a different element such as by radioactive decay
transparent
can transmits almost all the light rays that strikes it
transverse wave
wave in which matter moves at a right angle to the direction of the wave
trough
the lowest part of the transverse wave
turbine
a set of curved blades mounted on a long shaft that is turned by the flow of a fluid such as steam used to generate electricity
ultrasound
a sound w/ a wave frequency greater than those within the range of human hearing
ultraviolet
relating to invisible electromagneticwaves w/ wavelengths shorter than visible violet light & longer than X-rays
universal force
1 of the 4 forces common throughout the universe: gravitational, nuclear, electric, or magnetic
universal solvent
water, so called becauseof its ability to dissolve many substances
unsaturated
referring to a solution that contains less solute than can be dissolved at a given temperature & pressure
unsaturated hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon that contains at least 1 double or triple covalent bond in its chain of carbon atoms
vacuum tube
an early electronic device that consists of a glass vacuum bulb, a filament, & a plate
variable
the factor that changed in a controlled experiment
velocity
the speed & direction of movement
virtual image
an image such as 1 seen in a plane mirror formed by light rays that don't actually pass where the image appears
volt
the SI unit of voltage
voltage
the amount of electric energy available to move a charge
volume
the amount of space occupied by an object or substance
watt
the basic SI unit of power: 1 watt= 1 joule per second
wave
disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space
wavelength
the distance between 2 like parts of a wave such as crests
weak force
the nuclear force that holds together the particles within protons & neutrons
work
force acting upon an object in the direction the object moves
work input
the amount of work put into a machine
work output
the amount of work produced by a machine
X-ray
a high energy electromagnetic wave that can travel through matter & has a wavelength of .001nm to 10nm