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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
refers to anything that takes up space and has mass
a substance that cannot be broken down into another substance
who created the periodic table of elements
Dmitry Mendeleev
most common elements in living organisms
oxygen,hydrogen,carbon,and nitrogen
smallest particles that retain properties of an element
made up of subatomic particles
protons,electrons,and neutrons
number of protons in nucleus
atomic number
atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
have an unstable nucleus that emits energy and particles
radioactive decay transforms radioisotope into a different element called
what determines whether atoms will interact
the number and arrangement of their electrons
carries a negative charge,repel one another,are attracted to protons in the nucleus,move in orbitals
orbitals can hold up to two electrons
electron orbitals
lowest enregy,holds 1 orbital with up to 2 electrons
first shell
4 orbitals hold up to 8 electrons
second shell
important bonds in biological molecules
ionic bonds,covalent bonds, and hydrogen bonds
atom loses electron becomes ________ charged ion-cation
atom gains electron becomes _________ charged ion-anion
one atome loses electron,becomes positively charged ion, another atom gains these electrons, becomes negatively charged on
ionic bonding
atoms share a pair or pairs of electrons to fill outermost shell
covalent bonding
atoms share electron equally, nuclei of atoms have same number of protons
nonpolar covalent bonds
number or protons in nuclei of pariticpating atoms is not equal
polar covalent bonds
molecule held together by polar covalent bonds has no net charge,however atoms of the molecule carry different charges
hydrogen bonding
properties of water
polarity, temperature-stabilizing, solvent, cohesive
water molecules can make up to 4 hydrogen bonds, orders molecules into a higher level of structural organization
liquid water
polar, hydrogen bond with water, example: sugar
hydrophilic substances
non polar, repelleby by water, example: oil
hydrophobic substances
Liquid water can obsorb much heat before its temperature rises
Temperature-Stabilizing effects
large energy input can cause individual molecules of water to break free into air
evaporation water
why ice floats
ice is less dense than water