Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/150

Click to flip

150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1 oz=
30 ml
1/2 oz=
15 ml
1drop=
4 ml
1 1/4 drop=
5 ml
2 drop=
8ml
2 1/2 drops=
10 ml
1Tbsp=
15ml
1 tsp=
5ml
gr 15=
1000mg
gr10=
600mg
gr7 1/2=
500mg
gr 5=
300mg
gr 4=
250mg
gr3=
200
gr 2 1/2= 150mg
150mg
gr 2=
120mg
gr 1 1/2=
100mg
gr 1=
60mg
gr 3/4=
45mg
gr 1/2=
30mg
gr 1/3=
20mg
gr 1/4=
15mg
gr 1/6=
10mg
gr 1/8=
7.5mg
gr 1/10=
6mg
gr 1/15=
4mg
gr 1/20=
3mg
gr 1/30
2mg
gr 1/40
1.5mg
gr 1/60
1mg
gr 1/60
1mg
gr 1/100
0.6mg
gr 1/120
0.5mg
gr 1/150
0.4mg
gr 1/200
0.3mg
gr 1/250
0.25mg
gr 1/6
10 mg
1000mg
15 gr
generic name
given before a drug becomes official.
official name
the name under which is listed in one of the official publications.
chemical name
name by which a chemist knows it; the name describes the constituentsof the drug precisely.
trademark or brand name
name given by the drug manufacturer.because one drug may be manufactured by several companies, it can have several trade names.
pharmacology
study of the effect of drugs on living organisms.
pharmacy
is the art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs. The word also refers to the place where drugs are prepared and dispensed.
pharmacist
person licensed to prepare and dispense drugs and to make up prescriptions.
pharmacopoeia
a book containing a list of products used in medicine, with descriptions of the product, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, and formulas and prescriptions.
legal aspects of drug administration
under the law, nurses are responsible for their own actions regardless of whether there is a written order. If a physician writes an incorrect order, a nurse who administers the written incorrect dosage is responsible for the error as well as the physician. Therefore nurses should question any order that appears unreasonable and refuse to give the medication until the order is clarified.
caplet
a solid form, shaped like a capsule, coated and easily swallowed.
capsule
a gelatinous container to hold a drug in powder, liquid, or oil form.
lozenge (troche)
a flat, round, or oval preparation that dissolves and releases a drug when held in the mouth.
suppository
one or several drugs mixed with a firm base such as gelatin and shaped for insertion into the body, the base dissolves gradually at body temp, releasing the drug.
tablet
a powdered drug compressed into a hard small disc; some are readily broken along a scored line; others are enteric coated to prevent them from dissolving in the stomach.
transdermal patch
a semipermeable membrane shaped in the form of a disc or patch that contains a drug to be absorbed through the skin over a long pd of time.
Food, Drug, and cosmetic act 1938
implemented by food and drug administration (FDA) requires that labels be accurate and that all drugs be tested for harmful effects.
Durkham-Humphrey Amendment 1952
clearly differentiates drugs that can be sold only with a prescription, those that can be sold without a prescription, and those that should not be refilled w/o a new prescription.
Comprehensive drug abuse prevention and control act 1970 controlled substance act
categorizes controlled substances and limits how often a prescription can be filled; established government funded programs to prevent and treat drug dependence. Register drugs.
In hospitals, controlled substances are kept where?
in a locked drawer, cupboard, medication cart, or computer-controlled dispensing system.
information required for recording the use of controlled substances
the info required usually includes the name of the client the date and time of administration, the name of the drug, the dosage, and the signature of the person who prepared and gave the drug.
What is done when some medication must be discarded?
When a portion or all of the controlled substance needs to be discarded, the nurse must ask a second nurse to witness the discarding. Both nurses must sign the control inventory form.
How do u tally the number of doses used at the end of each shift?
The count total should tally w/ the total at the end of the last shift minus the number used. In facilities that use a computerized dispensing system, manual counts are not required; however, discepancies must be accounted for.
palliative
relieves the symptoms of a disease but does not affect the disease itself.
curative
cures a disease or condition
supportive
supports body functionuntil other treatments or the bodys response can take over.
substituitive
replaces body fluids or substances
chemotherapeutic
destroys malignant cells
restorative
returns the body to health.
therapeutic effect of a drug
also referred to as the desired effect, is the primary effect intended, that is, the reason the drug is prescribed.
side effect
or secondary effect, of a drug, is one that is uintended. usually predictable, may be harmless or harmful
adverse effects
more severe side effects
drug toxicity
deleterious effects of a drug on an organism or tissue; results from overdosage, ingestion of a drug intended for external use, and build up of the drug in the blood because of impaired metabolism or excretion.
drug allergy
is an immunologic reaction to a drug. when a client is first exposed to a foreign substance (antigen) the body may react by producing antibodies. A client can react to a drug as to an antigen and thus develop symptoms of an allergic reaction.
idiosyncratic effect
unexpected and individual.Underresponsive and overresponse to a drug may be idiosyncratic.The drug may have a completely different effect from the normal one or cause unpredictable and unexplainable symptoms in a particular client.
synergistic effect
increased
inhibiting effect
decreased
iatrogenic disease
(disease caused unintentionally by medical therapy) can be due to drug therapy.
physiologic dependence
biochemical changes in the body tissues, especially the nervous system.These tissues come to require the substance for normal functioning.
psychologic dependence
emotional reliance on a drug to maintain a sense of well being, accompanied by feelings of need or cravings for that drug.
actions of drugs on the body-half life
initially: 100%
after 8 hrs: 50%
after 16: 25%
After 24: 12.5%
after 32: 6.25%
onset of action
the time after administration when the body initially responds to the drug.
peak plasma level
the highest plasma level achieved by a single dose when the elimination rate of a drug equals the absorption rate.
drug half life (elimination half life)
the time required for the elimination process to reduce the concentration of the drug to one half what it was at initial
plateau
a maintained concentration of a drug in the plasma during a series of scheduled doses.
pharmacodynamics
is a process by which a drug alters cell physiology.
agonists
drug interaction with a cellular receptor
specific antagonist
drugs inhibit or prevent the action of an agonist
pharmockinetics
the study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs.
absorption
the process by which a drug passes into the blood stream.
The rate of absorption of a drug can be accelerated by what?
the application of heat, which increase blood flow to the area;
rate of drug can be slowed by what?
absorption can be slowed by the application of cold.
distribution
transportation of a drug from its site of absorption to its site of action- drug enters- carried to the most vascular organs-liver, kidneys, and the brain.
dangerous abbreviations
U, Q.D, QOD, SC, SQ, MS, MSO4
Types of medication orders
routine
as needed
single-one time
standing
stat
written
verbal or telephone
what makes a drug order legal
doctors signature
what should u do when u doubt any part of the medication order?
The nurse should call the physician and discuss the rationale-when documenting- document the call time, conversation, orders given, meds given before MD reached.
before administering meds, what should the nurse assess
assess the client before administering meds,assess thingas that may interfere with meds such as age, diet, gender, clients abilities, administration route, cultural,ethnic and genetic factors.
when assessing the client the nurse will assess?
drugs the client is currently taking, medication allergies, food allergies.
after the medication is administered it undergoes?
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
The nurse should understand what before giving medication to the client?
purpose of med, side effects, best route, how it will alter the clients physiology.
polypharmacy
lots of meds
6 rights
right medication, dose, client, route, time and documentation.
drug labels should contain what info?
name of medication, strength, dose, name of the client and room #.
required info before abministering controlled substance
name of client, date/time of administration, name of med, dose, signature of person preparing and administering med, physician ordering the medication.
before removing a controlled substance, what does the nurse do?
verifies # actually available with # indicated on narcotic or controlled substance inventory record,if not the same the nurse must investigate and correct before proceeding.
what do u do when there is a waste of controlled substance.
include order amount and wasted amount, second nurse must witness discard, both hurses must sign control substance inventory form.
Food drug and cosmetic act of 1938
regulates most food products, drugs, therapeutic agents, medical devices, radiation products, cosmetics, animal feed and drugs, combination devices such as insulin injector pens, transdermal patches.
President Roosevelt signed the food and drug act when?
1906
food and drug act originated as what?
division of chemistry in us dept of agriculture
purpose of food and drug act
to protect the public from adulterated or mislabeled drugs
food and drug act- drug companies had to declare?
had to declare the presence of dangerous and possible addicting drugs
what was the pharmacopia and national formulary designated for?
official standards for therapeutic use, patient safety, quality, purity, strength, packaging safety, dosage form.
1912-Shirley amendment
prohibits fraudulent therapeutic claims made by drug companies (b/c of the "intent" factor, violations were hard to prove)
1914- Harrison Narcotic Act
Established legal term "narcotic"-regulated issues associating w/ manufacture and sale of habit-forming drugs.
1938 revision of the food and drug act- became food, drug, and cosmetic act-
drugs must be tested for safety, application to prove safety before sold products
1951-Durham Humphrey Amendment
distinguished b/n drugs that could be sold w/ or w/o prescription- identify drugs that needed prescription to be filled,
legend drugs
drugs that need prescription- labeled caution- federal law prohibits dispensing w/o a prescription.
1962- kefauver-harris amendment
safety and efficacy (therapeutic effectiveness) had to be proven before new drug could be approved for use
1970- controlled substances act of 1970
enacted in response to misuse and abuse of drugs-middle-late 1960's
CSA
legal basis by which the manufacturer, importation, possession, distribution of certain drugs regulated by federal govt.
DEA
makes final decision whether drug drug will be controled and which schedule to place in.
schedule I
high pot. abuse-no acceptance for medical use- no prescription written.
Schedule II
High pot abuse- High dependence-has med use w/ severe restrictions-only w/ prescription, no refills allowed
Schedule III
abuse less than I or II-low-moderate physical dependence- high psychological dependence -w/ prescription-refill up to 5 times in 6 mths.
Schedule IV
Low abuse compared to previous schedules- limited dependence-controll similar to III.
Schedule V
low abuse-limited dependence-sometimes avail w/o prescription.
1980 dept of health and human services created
fda now a part of dhs.
pharmacology
study of preparation, properties, uses, and actions of drugs
pharmacy
art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing meds.
hospital formulary
listing of drugs -enables health practitioners to prescribe treatment appropriately.
physicians desk reference
contain infor about drugs- prescription drugs and products used in diagnostic procedures.
generic name
name given BEFORE drug becomes OFFICIAL.
official name
drug listed in the official publication (pharmacopeia)
trade name
name given by manufacturer
chemical name
exact designation of the chemical structure of a drug
idiosyncratic reaction
uncommon response to drug- genetic predisposition- unpredictable
hypersensitivity
inappropriate and excessive response of immune system to antigen.-determined by genetic predisposition-amount of allergen-kind of allergen-route of entry into the body
synergist effect
interaction that results from combined drug effects
additive effect
2 drugs given so that smaller doses may be given of each drug.
agonist
binds to biochemical receptor
antagonist
binds and inhibits activity of biochemical receptor- also called inhibitors.
onset of action
when the body initially responds to drug
peak plasma level
highest level achieved by single dose- elimination rate =absorption rate.
drug half life=8 hours
time required for elimination process of drug to 1/2 to when it was administered.
plateau
maintained concentration of drug in the plasma with repeated doses
pharmacodynamics
study of mechanism of drug actions in living tissue (study of therapeutic effect)
pharmacokinetics
study of actions within the body (absorption)
absorption
process which drug passes into bloodstream- most occur in intestine- food can delay absorption-food can alter molecule structure- acidity can affect absorption
solution
mix of substances dissolved in another substance
suspension
liquid- small particles suspended but not dissolved.
dispersal maintained by?
shaking or stirrring mixture
excretion
metabolites and drugs eliminated from body- most metabolites excreted by kidneys- meds can be excreted by breath, perspiration, saliva, breast milk.