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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ploya's Problem Solving Steps
1. Understand the problem
2. Devise a plan
3. Carry out the plan
4. Look back and reflect on your solution
Problem Solving Strategies
Guessing Intelligently
Trying a Simpler Problem
Making a Table
Drawing Pictures and Diagrams
Considering Centers and Ends
Ten for One Principle
In a base ten system, ten smaller units are regrouped into one of the next larger unit
Roman Numerals
I=1
V=5
X=10
L=50
C=100
D=500
M=1000
Place Value Numeration System
system in which the value of a numeral is determined only by its basic meaning but also by its location or place
Placeholder
symbol used to indicate an empty place in a place value system
Algorithm
step-by-step process for completing a task
Terminating Decimals
decimal number that contains only a finite number of digits
Conversion Principle
If a quanity is converted from a smaller unit to a larger unit, then the number of larger units will be smaller than the number of smaller units, and vice versa
Rational Number
any number that can be written in the form A/B, where A and B are integers and B can't equal 0
12 inches=?
1 foot
3 feet=?
1 yard
1760 yards=?
1 mile
5280 feet=?
1 mile
16 ounces=?
1 pound
2000 pounds=?
1 ton
3 teaspoons=?
1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons=?
1 ounce
8 ounces=?
1 cup
2 cups=?
1 pint
2 pints=?
1 quart
4 quarts=?
1 gallon
Angle
figure formed by two rays with a common endpoint, called a vertex
Radian
measure of an angle cooresponding to an arc with a length of one radius
1 gallon is approximately
231 cubic inches
1 mL=?
1 cubic centimeter
Function
One quanity Y is said to be a function of another quanity X if a specific value for X determines one specific value for Y
Four ways to describe a relationship
Verbally
Symbolically
Numerically
Graphically
variable
symbol used to represent a changing quanity
Set
a collection of things
Elements
the contents of a set
Well-defined
elements are clearly specified
One-to-one correspondence
The elements in one set can be paired up with the elements in another set
finite
set has a limited number of elements
infinite
set has elements that go on without end
cardinal number
describe the size of a set
ordinal number
whole numbers used to indicate order
nominal numbers
numbers used for identification, value is irrelevant.
Inductive Reasoning
the process of making a prediction or a conjecture by observing a pattern among a limited number of observations
Phases of Inductive Reasoning
1. Collecting a limited set of data or making a number of observations
2. Look for a pattern
3. Make a conjecture or prediction
Venn diagram
a diagram of sets and their relationship to each other
intersection
the set of all elements that are in both A and B.
union
the set of all elements that are in A or in B or in both A and B.
disjoint
the intersection of two sets is empty
partition
a set of subsets that have the following two characteristics: a) the subsets are disjoint and b) the union of the subsets is equivalent to the original set
elementary fraction
A/B with A parts of one or more sets each of which have been partitioned into B equal parts, where A and B are whole numbers and B can't equal 0
ratio
a comparison of two sets of the following form: For every A elements in the first set, there are B elements in the second set
Inverse
If not p, then not q.
Converse
If q, then p.
Contrapositive
If not q, then not p.
Complex Numbers
a number in the form a+bi, where a and b are real numbers.
Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
Every polynomial equation of degree N has exactly N complex solutions
Like Terms in Addition and Subtraction
Terms can be combined into a single term if and only if they have the same unit.
Multiplicative Comparison
Described amount is a multiplier of the base of comparison. A=m x b