• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/98

Click to flip

98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
TRUE OR FALSE: IN THE WOMB, THE LUNGS AND LIVER DO NOT FUNCTION
TRUE
IN THE FETUS, THE HOLE BETWEEN THE ATRIA IN WHICH BLOOD CIRCULATES
FORAMEN OVALE
THE DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
DUCT BETWEEN AORTA AND PULMONARY TRUNK
IN UTERO, BLOOD BYPASSES _______ AND GOES DIRECTLY TO ____________.
LUNGS
AORTA
CONNECTS PLACENTA AND ILIAC ARTERIES OF BABY AND CARRIES WASTES AND CO2 TO PLACENTA AND MOTHER
UMBILICL ARTERIES
PICK UP FOOD AND O2 FROM PLACENTA AND BRING IT TO FETUS
UMBILICAL VEINS
CONNECT INSIDE THE BODY TO THE DUCTUS VENOSUS
UMBILIICAL VEINS
CARRIES FOOD AND O2 UP TO THE LIVER AND THEN CONNECTS TO INFERIOR VENA CAVA
DUCTUS VENOSUS
WHEN DOES THE FORAMEN OVALE DISAPPEAR?

ONCE IT DISAPPEARS, IT BECOMES A DEPRESSION CALLED?
DISAPPEARS WITHIN 9 MONTHS

BECOMES A DEPRESSION IN THE HEART CALLED THE FOSSA OVALIS
DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS WITHERS AND BECOMES WHAT?
LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM
THE DUCTUS VENOSUS ATROPHIES AND BECOMES THE LIGAMENTUM VENOSUM. WHAT FUNCTION DOES THE LIGAMENTUM VENOSUM HAVE?
IT'S A PIECE OF TISSUE THAT HELPS HOLD THE LIVER IN PLACE.
UMBILICAL VEINS WITHER AND BECOME LIGAMENTUM TERES. WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
HOLD LIVER IN PLACE
UMBILICAL ARTERIES BECOME WHAT?

WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
SUPERIOR VESICAL ARTERIES

SUPPLY BLOOD TO BLADDER.
SURFACTANT
A MIXTURE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPDS, WHICH ARE CRITICAL FOR ALVEOLAR STABILITY. IT IS PRODUCED IN UTERO AT 28-32 WEEKS, BUT PEAKS AT 35
LECITHIN AND SPHINGOMYELIN
PHOSPHOLIPIDS THAT COMPRISE SURFACTANT
WHICH PHOSPHOLIPID IS PRODUCED IN GREATER AMOUNTS IN THE NEWBORN L OR S?
L - 2:1 RATIO
IF A BABY IS BORN BEFORE THE L/S RATIO IS 2:1, WHAT ARE THE POTENTIAL PROBLEMS?
THE BABY WILL HAVE VARYING DEGREES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS.
WHAT 2 RADICAL CHANGES MUST TAKE PLACE FOR THE LUNGS TO FUNCTION IMMEDIATELY AFTER BIRTH?
PULMONARY VENTILATION MUST BE ESTABLISHED THROUGH LUNG EXPANSION FOLLOWING BIRTH.

A MARKED INCREASE IN THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION MUST OCCUR.
INITIATION OF BREATHING OCCURS BECAUSE OF WHAT 4 PROCESSES?
MECHANICAL EVENTS - BEING BORN VAGINALLY SQUEEZES FLUID FROM BODY

CHEMICAL STIMULI - THE GASP OF AIR ELEVATES PCO2 AND DECREASES PH AND PO2

THERMAL STIMULI - THE CHANGE IN TEMP. FROM UTERO TO BIRTH STIMULATES RESPIRATIONS

SENSORY STIMULI - PHYSICAL AND SENSORY STIMULI INVOLVED IN THE BIRTHING PROCESS HELP RESPIRATION BEGIN.
NEWBORNS ARE OBLIGATE MOUTH BREATHERS - TRUE OR FALSE?
FALSE. THEY ARE NOSE BREATHERS AND IT'S VERY IMPT. TO KEEP NOSE AND THROAT FREE OF OBSTRUCTIONS
IT IS NORMAL FOR NEWBORN TO HAVE RAPID BREATHS WITH PERIODS OF APNEA, BUT WHEN IS APNEA ABNORMAL
MORE THAN 20 SEC. OF APNEA IS ABNORMAL
THE 3 COMPONENTS OF FETAL CIRCULATION
DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
FORAMEN OVALE
DUCTUS VENOSUS
FORAMEN OVALE
ANATOMICAL OPENING BETWEEN THE RIGHT ATRIUM AND LEFT ATRIUM WHICH CLOSES SHORTLY AFTER BIRTH
DUCTUS ARTERIOSIS
VESSLE THAT CONNECTS MAIN PULM ARTERY TO THE AORTA
DUCTUS VENOSUS
CONNECTS TO THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA.
WHICH TWO STRUCTURES SHUNT BLOOD FROM THE LUNGS DURING UTERO?
FORAMEN OVALE
DUCTUS ARTERIOSIS
WHICH STRUCTURE SHUNTS BLOOD FORM LIVER DURING UTERO
DUCTUS VENOSUS
WHY DO THE DA, FO, AND DV VALVES CLOSE?
WHEN BABY IS BORN, LUNGS FILL WITH AIR, ESTABLISHING ITS OWN PULM CIRCULATION
TEMPERATURE REGULATION IS WHAT?
THE MAINTENANCE OF THERMAL BALANCE BY THE LOSS OF HEAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT AT A RATE EQUAL TO THE PRODUCTION OF HEAT.
TNZ - THERMAL NEUTRAL ZONE
A SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL TEMP RANGE THAT PROVIDES MINIMAL HEAT LOSS OR EXPENDITURE. THIS VARIES FROM BABY TO BABY
BROWN FAT
STORES OF FAT THAT PROMOTE RAPID METABOLISM, HEAT GENERATION AND HEAT TRANSFER TO PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION.

PRIMARY SOURCE OF HEAT IN THE COLD STRESSED NEWBORN.
SHIVERING IN THE NEWBORN
SHIVERING IN THE NEWBORN MEANS THE NEWBORN'S METABOLIC RATE HAS DOUBLED, BUT THIS DOES NOT PRODUCE HEAT.
TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN THE NEWBORN IS ACCOMPLISHED BY WHAT 2 MECHANISMS?
TNZ
BROWN FAT
HEAT LOSS IN THE NEWBORN TAKES PLACE IN WHAT 4 WAYS?
CONVECTION
RADIATION
EVAPORATION
CONDUCTION
CONVECTION
LOSS OF HEAT BY AIR BLOWING -CEILING FANS OR AIR VENTS
RADIATION
HEAT TRANSFER FROM OBJECTS NOT IN DIRECT CONTACT WITH BODY - PLACING COLD OBJECTS NEAR INFANT
EVAPORATION
WATER IS CONVERTED TO A VAPOR - INFANT NEEDS TO BE WELL DRIED
CONDUCTION
HEAT LOSS DUE TO CONTACT WITH A COOLER SURFACE SUCH AS A NURSES COLD HANDS.
PHYSIOLOGIC JAUNDICE
CAUSED BY ACCELERATED DESTRUCTION OF RBC'S, BUILD UP OF BILLIRUBIN, AND CONJUGATION OF BILLIRUBIN
OCCURS AFTER 24 HOURS

THE LIVER IS IMMATURE AT BIRTH
SHOULD NOT EXCEED 13MG/DL
TX FOR JAUNDICE
FOOD, FLUID, MILK, LIGHT THERAPY
WHY IS VITAMIN K (AQUAMEPHYTON)GIVEN SOON AFTER BIRTH?
TO ACTIVATE COAGULATION FACTORS.

NEWBORNS HAVE A LOW LEVEL OF VIT. K AT BIRTH BECAUSE THEY HAVE A STERILE GUT.

JUST IN CASE NEWBORN HAS A BLEEDING PROBLEM, WE WANT THEM TO BE PROTECTED UNTIL THEY DEVELOP A SUPPLY OF COAGULATION FACTORS AROUND 9 MONTHS OR LATER.
WHERE IS THE INJECTION OF AQUAMEPHYTON GIVEN, WHAT IS THE DOSE?
0.5-1 MG. IM IN VASTUS LATERALUS
PERIODS OF REACTIVITY
PREDICTIBLE PATTERN OF BEHAVIOR DURING FIRST SEVERAL HOURS AFTER BIRTH, CHARACTERIZED BY 2 PERIODS OF REACTIVITY SEPERATED BY A SLEEP PHASE.
FIRST PERIOD OF REACTIVITY
APROX 30 MIN AFTER BIRTH
NEWBORN AWAKE, ACTIVE, HUNGRY, SUCKING REFLEX
BREAST FEED IF DESIRED
BURSTS OF RANDOM MOVEMENT ALTERNATING WITH IMMOBILITY
RESP RAPID
FLARING OF NARES, GRUNTING
RAPID HEART RATE WITH IRREG. RHYTHM
B/S ABSENT
SLEEP PHASE OF REACTIVITY
HEART RATE AND RESP DECREASE
CAN LAST FOR 2-4 HR.
DIFFICULT TO WAKE
NO INTEREST IN SUCKING
B/S AUDIBLE
CARDIAC AND RESP. RATE RETURN TO BASELINE VALUE
SECOND PERIOD OF REACTIVITY
AWAKE, ALERT
USUALLY LAST 4-6 HR.
HEART AND RESP INCREASE
PERIODS OF APNEA CAN BE PRESENT
RAPID COLOR CHANGES AND MILDLY CYANOTIC DURING PHASES OF APNEA
PRODUCTION OF GASTRIC MUCOUS INCREASES - GAGGING,CHOKING, REGURGITATING
MAINTAIN AIRWAY
MECONIUM STOOL
ROOTING,SWALLOWING,SUCKING
WHAT IS DONE TO THE NEWBORN FOR EYE PROFALAXIS
ERYTHROMYCIN OINTMENT IS INSTILLED IN THE EYES TO PREVENT OPTHALMIA NEONATORUM (CAUSED BY GONORRHEA AND CHLAMYDIA)
NEWBORN METABOLIC SCREENINGS DONE BEFORE DISCHARGE FROM HOSPITAL
HEEL STICK TO IDENTIFY:
PKU
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
GALACTOSEMIA
CONGENIATAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA
HYPOTHYROIDISM

USUALLY DONE 24 HRS. AFTER BIRTH
PKU
ESSENTIAL AA THAT THE BODY USES FOR GROWTH. THE BODY CONVERTS EXCESS AMOUNTS OF IT TO TYROSINE, BUT IF THE NEWBORN WITH PKU CAN'T CONVERT IT, IT BUILDS UP IN THE BLOOD, WHICH WILL LEAD TO MENTAL RETARDATION

A PROBLEM WITH DISCHARGING PRIOR TO 24 HOURS IS THAT THE PKU TEST AND TEST FOR HYPOTHYROIDISM MAY NOT BE ACCURATE PRIOR TO 24 HOURS OF AGE. IF THE NEWBORN NEEDS TO BE RE-TESTED AT THE MD'S OFFICE NO LATER THAN 2 WEEKS
CAPUT VS. CEPHALOHEMAT0MA
CAPUT: COMPRESSION OF BV'S ON INFANT HEAD AS A RESULT OF LONG DIFFICULT LABOR. CAUSES DECREASED VENUS RETURN, INCREASE IN FLUID VOL, EDEMA, BLEEDING. THE FLUID IS USUALLY REABSORBED WITHIN 12 HOURS TO A FEW DAYS. IT DOES CROSS SUTURE LINES

CEPHALOHEMATOMA-COLLECTION OF BLOOD RESULTING FROM RUPTURED BV'S BETWEEN THE CRANIAL BONE AND PERIOSTEAL MEMBRANE. SCALP FEELS LOOSE AND ENDEMATOUS. BY 1ST OR 2ND DAY THEY EMERGE INTO HEMATOMAS. THEY DO NOT CROSS SUTURE LINES. MAY DISAPPEAR WITHIN 2-3 WEEKS. MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH PHY. JAUNDICE B/C RBC'S ARE DESTROYED WITHIN IT.
TESTS THAT CAN BE DONE TO ASSESS FETAL WELL-BEING
FETAL ACTIVITY
ULTRASOUND
NST
ST
BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE
AMNIOCENTESIS
TRIPLE TEST
GESTATIONAL AGE ASSESSMENT
TO ASSESS FETAL WELL BEING, FETAL ACTIVITY TEST CAN BE PERFORMED. DESCRIBE WHO DOES IT, WHEN IT'S DONE, WHAT IS DONE, WHEN IS IT A CONCERN?
MOM ASSESSES FETAL ACTIVITY AND MOVEMENT AND IT'S RECORDED ON A TAPE.

DONE FROM 28TH WEEK TO BIRTH
3RD TRIMESTER AVERAGE OF 30 MOVEMENTS/HOUR
IF LESS THAN 10 MOVEMENTS/3 HOURS CALL PHYSICIAN
WHY MIGHT AN EARLY ULTRASOUND DONE.
DX. IUP (INTRAUTERINE PREGNANCY) AND MAKE SURE IT'S NOT AN ECTOPIC.
TO ID MULTIPLE GESTATION IF FUNDUS IS NOT MEASURING NORMALLY
TO ASSESS GESTATIONAL AGE
ANOMOLIES
FHR AND FBM (FETAL BREATHS/MIN)
TO DETECT GESTATIONAL AGE VIA ULTRASOUND, WHEN CAN THIS BE DONE AND WHAT IS MEASURED?
CAN ONLY BE DONE IN 1ST TRIMESTER.

MEASURE BIPARIETAL DIAMETER AND FEMUR LENGTH.
TO DETECT FETAL CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS WHAT TEST IS DONE?
AMNIOCENTESIS
IF AN ULTRASOUND IS DONE IN LATER PREGNANCY, WHAT MIGHT BE SOME REASONS?
DETECT AMOUNT AND LOCATION OF AMNIOTIC FLUID
DETECT PLACENTAL LOCATION AND GRADING
FETAL PRESENTATION/POSITION
AMNIOCENTESIS
FETAL DEATH
PLACENTAL PREVIA
ABNORMAL IMPLANTATION OF PLACENTA IN THE LOWER UTERINE SEGMENT.

DO NOT DO VAG. EXAM IF PT. HAS PAINLESS VAG. BLEEDING - COULD BE R/T PLACENTA PREVIA
WHY DO WE NEED TO DO US BEFORE AMNIOCENTESIS
LOCATE AMNIOTIC POCKET, LOCATION OF FETUS, AND PLACENTAL LOCATION SO WE PLACE THE NEEDLE IN THE CORRECT PLACE TO DRAW OUT THE FLUID.
NON STRESS TEST (NST)
STRESS REFERS TO UTERINE CONTRACTIONS, SO IN THIS TEST WE DO NOT MEASURE CONTRACTIONS THATS WHY IT'S CALLED A NST.

DONE AT 32 WEEKS
ASSESSES BASELINE VARIABILITY AND ACCELERATIONS OF FHR WITH FETAL MOVEMENT.
HOW Is FETAL WELL BEING INDICATED USING THE RESULTS OF A NST. WHAT ARE MD'S LOOKING FOR IN THE RESULTS?
REACTIVE IS REASSURING AND INDICATIVE OF FETAL WELL BEING

2 ACCELERATIONS OF FHR WITH FM OF 15 BPM LASTING 15 SEC OR MORE OVER 20 MIN PERIOD.
IF A NST IS NONREACTIVE, WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
THE CRITERIA WAS NOT MET AND THERE IS UNSATISFACTORY OR INADEQUATE FETAL MOVEMENT.

THEY MAY GIVE OJ,H20,ICE CHIPS,OR FOOD TO MOM TO STIM. FETAL ACTIVITY.
CONTRACTION STRESS TEST
MUST HAVE CONTRACTIONS
EVALUATES PLACENTAL FUNCTION AND FETAL TOLERANCE TO LABOR
DONE AT 32-34 WEEKS
15 MINUTE BASELINE FIRST
SPONTANEOUS CONTRACTIONS
NIPPLE STIM. TO STIM. OXYTOCIN WHICH STIM. CONTR.
OCT (OXYTOCIN CHALLANGE TEST - PITOCIN DILUTED W/ IV FLUID AND INFUSED) DONE IF NIPPLE STIM DOESN'T WORK
NEGATIVE CST
3 CONTRACTIONS LASTING 40 SEC. OR MORE IN 10 MIN. WITHOUT LATE DECELS. THIS IS REASSURING TO MD BECAUSE LATE DECELS INIDICATE POOR UTERO PLACENTAL PERFUSION.
BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE. WHO HAS IT DONE AND WHAT TYPES OF THINGS DOES IT ASSESS?
ONLY HIGH RISK PT. HAS IT DONE.

FETAL BREATHING MVTS.
FETAL MVT.
FETAL TONE
AMNIOTIC FLD. VOL.
REACTIVE FHR
ULTRASOUND AND NST COMBINED
NORMAL SCORE IS 8 OR 10 (SCORING IS DONE LIKE APGAR)
AMNIOCENTESIS. WHY IS IT DONE, WHO IS IT DONE ON?
CAN BE DONE EARLY (16-18 WEEKS) TO TEST FOR GENETIC ABNORMALITIES

OR LATE (33-40 WEEKS)TO DETECT LS RATIO FOR FETAL LUNG MATURATION. IF MOM HAS DIABETES AND THEY NEED TO INDUCE BECAUSE BABY/MOM IS IN DANGER, THEY NEED TO MAKE SURE LUNGS HAVE ENOUGH SURFACTANT THAT THEY CAN FUNCTION.
CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING (CVS)
CHORIONIC VILLI IS OBTAINED FROM PLACENTA
DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC,METABOLIC,AND DNA STUDIES
CAN BE DONE CERVICALLY OR ABDOMINALLY
PERFORMED AT 10-12 WEEKS
TRIPLE TEST
A TEST THAT ASSESS FOR APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF AFP, HCG, AND ESTRIOL. IT'S MOST WIDELY USED TO SCREEN FOR DOWN SYNDROME, TRISOMY 18 AND NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.

IT CAN BE DONE BY TESTING AMNIOTIC FLUID, BUT IS USUALLY PERFORMED USING A MATERNAL BLOOD SAMPLE AT 16-18 WEEKS
QUADRUPLE TEST
WILL REPLACE TRIPLE TEST. IT'S THE TRIPLE TEST PLUS INHIBIN A, WHICH REDUCES THE FALSE-POSITIVE RATE.
WHAT DO ESTRIOL LEVELS INDICATE?
PLACENTAL FUNCTION

THE HIGHER LEVEL OF ESTRIOL INDICATES INCREASED PLACENTAL FUNCTION.
GESTATIONAL AGE ASSESSMENT INCLUDES WHAT?
WEIGHT
LENGTH
HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE
SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE
AT OR BELOW THE 10TH PERCENTILE. CAN BE USED INTERGANGABLE WITH IUGR
IUGR (INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION)
ADVANCED GESTATION AND LIMITED FETAL GROWTH.
SYMMETRICAL IUGR - WHAT CAUSES IT? WHEN CAN IT BE DETECTED? HOW IS FETUS AFFECTED?
CAUSED BY LONG-TERM MATERNAL CONDITIONS SUCH AS CHRONIC HTN, SEVERE MALNUTRITION,DM CHRONIC INTRAUTERINE INFECTION, SUBSTANCE ABUSE,ANEMIA OR FETAL GENETIC ABNORMALITIES.

CAN BE DETECTED ON US THE FIRST HALF OF SECOND TRIMESTER

EVERYTHING ON THE FETUS IS EFFECTED.
ASYMMETRICAL IUGR
ASSOCIATED WITH ACUTE COMPRIMISE OF UTEROPLACENTAL BLOOD FLOW. CAN BE CAUSED BY ADOLESCENT/PIH/POOR NURTRITION

THIS TYPE OF IUGR IS USUALLY NOT EVIDENT UNTIL 3RD TRIMESTER.

THE BODY IS SMALL BUT HEAD AND BRAIN IS OK.

IT IS BETTER TO HAVE ASYMMETRICAL THEN SYMMETRICAL IUGR
COMPLICATIONS OF THE SGA NEWBORN
PERINATAL ASPHYXIA
ASPIRATION (MAS)
HEAT LOSS
HYPOGLYCEMIA
HYPOCALCEMIA
POLYCYTHEMIA
LGA AND CAUSES
AT OR ABOVE 90TH PERCENTILE

CAUSES:
MATERNAL DIABETES (IDM)
GENETIC
MULTIPARA
COMPLICATIONS OF LGA BABY
1. BIRTH TRAUMA SUCH AS:
CPD-ABSOLLUTELY REQUIRES CS
SHOULDER DYSTOCIA
FRACTURED CLAVICLE
CEPHALOHEMATOMA
SKID MARKS
NERVE DAMAGE

2. CS

3. HYPOGLYCEMIA

4. POLYCYTHEMIA
S/S OF HYPOGLYCEMIA IN THE NEWBORN
TREMORS
CYANOSIS
APNEA
TEMP INSTABILITY
POOR FEEDING
HYPOTONIA
SEIZURES IN SEVERE CASES
POLYCYTHEMIA
HYPERVISCOSITY (THICK BLOOD), DECREASED DEFORMABILITY OF RBC (CAN'T BREAK DOWN) RESULTS IN POOR TISSUE PERFUSION. THIS STIMULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN PRODUCTION, WHICH INCREASES HCT AND THE POTENTIAL FOR HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA.

THIS CONDITION MAY BE CAUSED BY THE DECREASED EXTRACELLULAR VOL. IN IDM'S
EXPLAIN HYPOGLYCEMIA IN THE IDM.
IN UTERO, FETUS IS ACCOSTUMED TO HIGH LEVELS OF GLUCOSE, SO THE FETAL PANCREAS PROD. INCREASED AMT. OF INSULIN.

WHEN THE CORD IS CLAMPED, THE GLUCOSE IS SHUT OFF, BUT THE PANCREAS IS STILL PROD. INSULIN.

IT IS IMPT. TO FEED BABY RIGHT AFTER BIRTH TO GET GLUCOSE LEVELS UP TO COMPENSATE FOR HIGH INSULIN LEVEL.
HYPOCALCEMIA IN THE IDM AND S/S
MAY BE R/T IDM'S INCREASED INCEDENCE OF PREMATURITY AND STRESS OF DIFFICULT LABOR AND PREGNANCY.

DIABETIC WOMEN HAVE LOW SERUM MAG. LEVELS AT TERM SECONDARY TO INCREASED URINARY CALCIUM EXCRETION, WHICH CAUSES SECONDARY HYPOTHYROIDISM IN THE INFANT.

S/S: TREMORS ARE THE OBVIOUS SIGN.
IDM COMPLICATIONS
HYPOGLYCEMIA
HYPOCALCEMIA
HYPERBILLIRUBINEMIA
BIRTH TRAUMA
POLYCYTHEMIA
RDS
CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
Respriatory Distress Syndrome IN THE IDM
INSULIN IS ANTAGONIST TO LECITHIN, WHICH PRODUCES SURFACTANT.

IDM'S PRODUCE A LOT OF INSULIN, SO FETUS MAY NOT HAVE ADEQUATE SURFACTANT PRODUCTION.

MANY TIMES IDM'S ARE DELIVERED EARLY, SO PHYSICIAN MAY WANT A 3:1 RATIO BEFORE INDUCTION.
PRETERM INFANT IS BORN WHEN.
BEFORE ON AT THE END OF 37 WEEKS.
COMPLICATIONS OF THE PRETERM
ORGAN IMMATURITY
APNEA
RDS
PDA
IVH
THERMOREGULATION PROBLEMS
HYPOGLYCEMIA
HYPOCALCEMIA
FEEDING PROBLEMS
NEC
RDS AND Signs and symptoms
RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

EX:
CIRCUMORAL CYANOSIS
TACHYPNEA
NASAL FLARING
GRUNTING
STERNAL RETRACTIONS
APNEA
Patent Ductus Arterioses
PATENT DUCTUS ARTEREOSIS

DUCTUS ARTERIOSIS CLOSES IN RESPONSE TO INCREASING LEVELS OF O2.

IF 02 IS LOW, IT MAY STAY OPEN WHICH PUTS BABY AT RISK FOR PULM HTN, TACHYPNEA
Intraventricular hemmhorage
INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMMHORAGE

STROKE. BLOOD VESSELS IN THE BRAIN RUPTURE.

MOST COMMON TYPE OF INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE IN SMALL PRE-TERM INFANTS.
WHY DO PRETERMS HAVE THERMOREGULATION PROBLEMS
NOT ENOUGH SUB-q FAT OR BROWN FAT IS NOT DEVELOPED
Necrotizing Enterocolitis
NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS IS A RESULT OF DIMINISHED BLOOD FLOW AND TISSUE PERFUSION TO THE IINTESTINAL TRACT DUE TO PROLONGED HYPOXIA AND HYPOXEMIA AT BIRTH.
LONG TERM PROBLEMS OF THE PRETERM
Retinopathy
Retrolentalfibroplasia
Bronchiopulmonary displasia
SPEECH, NEURO, AUDITORY DEFICITS
cerebral palsey
severe learning problems
RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
RETINOPATHY OF PREMATUREITY

RETINAL CHANGES THAT CAN RESULT IN VISUAL IMPAIRMENT.
BPD
BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA

LONG TERM LUNG DISEASE THAT IS A RESULT OF DAMAGE TO THE ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM SECONDARY TO POSITIVE PRESSURE RESPIRATOR THERAPY AND HIGH O2 CONCENTRATION.

L/T DEPENDANCE ON O2 AND INCREASED INCIDENCE OF RESP. INFECT. DURING FIRST FEW YEARS OF LIFE ARE COMMON.
WHEN IS A BABY CONSIDERED POSTTERM
IF BORN AFTER 42 WEEKS
POSTMATURE SYNDROME
FETUS HAS OUTLIVED THE ABILITY OF THE PLACENTA TO NURTURE IT. BABY LOOSES SUB-q FAT AND BURNS OFF BROWN FAT.
PROBLEMS WITH POSTMATURE SYNDROME
HYPOGLYCEMIA
MAS
POLYCYTHEMIA
COLD DISTRES
HYPOGLYCEMIA IS A PROBLEM IN THE PRETERM. WHY IS IT A PROBLEM IN THE POSTTERM AS WELL?
BECAUSE THE FETUS IS DEPRIVED OF NUTRIENTS AND HAS DEPLETED GLYCOGEN STORES.

ONCE BORN, BABY CAN'T REGULATE BLOOD SUGAR AND QUICKLY BURNS ALL FAT AND GLUCOSE TO HELP STAY WARM.
GROUP B STREP
STREP B IS NORMAL FLORA IN MOST WOMEN'S VAGINA AND IS NO PROBLEM FOR MOM, HOWEVER IT IS A PROBLEM FOR BABY AND CAN KILL AN INFANT IF IT IS EXPOSED.

IF AT ANY TIME IN THE ANTEPARTAL PERIOD THE MOM IS TESTED + FOR GBS, SHE WILL BE TREATED AT + DURING L&D ALSO.

SHE WILL GET 2 DOSES OF ANTIBIOTIC (AMPICILLIN IV OR Q 4 HOURS OR GENTAMYCIN) TO PREVENT SPREAD TO BABY.

IF MOM IS -, THEY WILL CULTURE BABY AT BIRTH AND
GIVE MEDS IF BABY IS +. BABY WILL NEED ANTIBIOTICS FOR 2 WEEKS.