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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
stimulating agent
Blocking agent
Nicotinic receptors
Nicotinic agents stimulate para. and symp. postganglionic neurons in ANS
(Heart rate increase-symp. Decrease-para.)
Muscarinic receptors (parasympathomimetic)
Located in membranes of effector cells. Responds to AcH. Stimulates parasympathetic, and muscarinic sweat receptors innervated by symp. system.
Adrenergic receptors (sympathomimetic)
N.E. and Epinephrine binds to. Located in plasma membranes of effectors innervated by the sypm.
Alpha and Beta receptors.
Receptors to which AcH binds. Muscarinic and Nicotinic.
Alpha receptors
a-adrenergic blocker used to treat hypertension. Adrenergic agents used to increase blood pressure.
Beta receptors
B-adrenergic-blocking agent used to treat high blood pressure, and some types of cardiac arrythmias and heart attacks. Prevents sudden increases in heart rate.
Effects of spinal cord injury on ANS functions.
1. parasymp. sacral effectors are affected but thoracic is fine because innervated by Vagus.
2. Brain control of symp. neurons is lost below site of injury.
3. Spinal reflexes below site of injury temporarily lost.
4. Autonomic reflexes mediated through vagus/enteric not affected.
Using electronic machines to monitor and change subconscious activities. Ex. watching a heart rate monitor a person can learn to control heartrate.
Can be used to influence autonomic functions. Deal with stress related conditions.
Fight-or-Flight response
An adaptive response that prepares a persons nervous and endocrine systems to resist or move away from a threatening situation.
Raynaud disease
spasmodic contraction of blood vessels and poor circulation. Possibly due to exaggerated sensitivity to sympathetic innervations.
Excessive sweating caused by exaggerated sympathetic innervation of sweat glands.
Difficulty swallowing and controlling esophageal contraction where it enters the stomach. Due to abnormal parasympathetic regulation of the swallowing reflex.
Autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Few tears, poor vasomotor control, trouble swallowing.
Hirschsprung disease
AKA megacolon. Blocked colon and rectum inhibiting peristaltic contractions leading to buildup of feces. Caused by ineffective parasympathetic stimulation and a predominance of symp. stimulation of colon.