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101 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which mucins are the anchoring type?
MUC1, MUC4, MUC16
What is MUC5AC?
The most common--Lubricating Muscin.
Secretion of the aqueous layer via what cells?
Pyramidal cells.
Sympathetic supply to lacrimal via:
Deep Petrosal Nerve.
I say "The Greater Superficial Petrosal Nerve," you say:
Parasympathetic supply to the lacrimal gland.
List afferent pathways to the lacrimal gland (6 kinds)
Trigeminal nerve, Optic nerve, CN VII (Facial), CN IX & X, Cortex, and Hypothalamus
cAMP is a ____.
Second Messenger
Protein kinase C accomplishes ____.
Phosphorylation of enzymes
List 3 factors leading to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase:
VIP, aphla MSH, ACTH
What is the function of an Na/K-ATPase?
Pumps sodium OUT of secretory cells.
What is the thickness of the lipid layer?
0.1 um
What is the thickness of the aqueous layer?
5 um
What is the thickness of the muscin layer?
1 um
What is a typical value for tear osmolarity?
318 mOsm/kg
What is a typical value for tear tonicity?
0.97% NaCl
What change in tear tonicity results following adaptiation to rigid CLs?
Tears become Hypertonic (decreased production, increased osmolarity, mechanical tear film breakup, etc.)
What cange in tear tonicity occurs during adaptation to rigid CLs?
Hypotonicity of the tears (reflex tearing, overproduction, etc.)
What change occurs in tear osmolarity in postmenepausal women?
Tear osmolarity increases (dry eye due to decreased lacrimal gland secretion)
Is the pH of infant tears higher or lower than adults?
Lower pH: Their eyes haven't been opened much.
Approximate the refractive index of tears:
1.33698
What does BUT stand for?
Break Up Time
What is a normal result from a Schirmer Test?
> 10 mm in 5 min.
Having > 350 interpalpebral goblet cells/mm^2 would be found by a ____ test?
Impression Cytology
Non Invasive Break Up Time (NIBUT) > or < than BUT?
NIBUT > BUT (nothing artificial interfering with layer, or possibly longer detection time)
What does the Jones Test I check for?
Appearance of fluorescein dye
What is the normal height of the tear meniscus?
> 0.3 mm
This would be graded on a scale of 0-3 (0 or 1 is normal):
Fluorescein dye disappearance test
Pseudoepiphora is a:
Hypersecretion of tears problem
Meibomian gland dysfunction is a:
Lipid layer abnormality
Less than 10 mm traveled in 15 seconds would be an abnormal reading from a:
Phenol Red thread test
What does KCS stand for?
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca [Desiccation] as seen in Sjogren's Syndrome.
Meibomian gland dysfunction is a:
Lipid layer abnormality
Less than 10 mm traveled in 15 seconds would be an abnormal reading from a:
Phenol Red thread test
Define Madarosis
Partial loss of eyelashes
Blockage of Meibomian glands:
Meibomian gland dysfunction
Inversion of eyelid margin:
Entropion
What is an external hordeolum
Inflammation of an eyelash follicle (aka a stye)
What do you call a chronic granuloma of a Meibomian gland?
Chalazion
What do you call inflammation of the eyelid margin?
Belpharitis
Define Ectropion:
Outward turning of the eylid margin.
Define Demodicosis:
Lid infestation with mites.
What do you call it when someone has no eyelashes?
Alopecia
What is an acute inflammation of a Meibomian Gland?
Internal Hordeolum
How does one measure polymegathism?
Use the coefficient of variation.
What is the origin of the keratocyte endothelium?
Neural crest
What is the origin of the corneal epithelium?
Surface ectoderm
What is the mean central corneal thickness?
536 um
What effect does dry eye have on corneal thickness?
Dry eye decreases corneal thickness
What is the radius of curvature for the cornea?
7.8mm
Radius of curvature for the sclera?
12mm
Where is glycogen stored in the eye?
Glycogen is stored in surface epithelium
What takes place in the basal epithelium?
Mitosis.
"Scattering is reduced by destructive interference" is ____ ____ ____?
Maurice's lattice theory
Is the relationship between stromal thickness/hydration linear or exponential?
Linear
Is the relationship between swelling pressure and hydration linear or exponential?
Exponential
What sort of junctions are between keratocytes?
Gap junctions
What sort of junctions are between surface epithelial cells?
Zonular occludens
What kind of junctions are between endothelial cells?
Maculae occludens.
What's the minimum oxygen tension needed to get 4% edema with an extended wear CL?
17.90%
What's the minimum oxygen tension used with daily wear CLs?
9.90%
What is 12R-HETE
An arachidonate metabolite
What would stromal pH be after wearing a hydrogel CL?
7.15
What % of the air is made up of oxygen?
21%
What is the partial pressure of oxygen at sea level?
559 mmHg
What is the partial pressure of oxygen under a closed eyelid?
57 mmHg
What reduction in oxygen uptake rate is seen with a long-term extended wear CL?
15% reduction
Dk is permeability or transmissibility?
Permeability
Dk/t is permeability or transmissibility?
Transmissibility
What is the stroma pH of a normal open eye?
7.55
What is the intramuscular circle formed by?
The perforating branch of the anterior ciliary arteries
Where is the Major Arterial Cricle of the Iris located?
At the iris root.
Branches of the anterior ciliary arteries on the surface of the sclera gives rise to ____?
The episcleral arterial circle
Where is the minor arterial circle of the iris located?
At the collarette of the iris.
What does the superficial marginal plexus give rise to?
Peripheral corneal arcades and recurrent conjunctival vessels.
What forms the choriocapillaris (choroid)?
Sort posterior ciliary arteries.
Where are the plexi from the central retinal artery located?
The nerve fiber layer and inner nuclear layer of the retina.
The circle of Zinn supplies ____?
Portions of the optic nerve.
What ion exists in greater concentration within the aqueous (compared to plasma)?
Chloride
Proteins are in lower concentration in the ____ than the plasma?
There aren't any proteins in the aqueous.
What antioxidant increases sodium transport in the ciliary epithelia?
Ascorbic acid.
What is the location of the minor circle of the iris?
Collarette
What layer of the iris is responsible for iris color?
Anterior boarder layer.
Zonula occludens are found in what layer of the iris?
Posterior pigment epithelium
How would you define an iris process?
A modification of the uveal meshwork that bridges the anterior chamber angle
What's the predominant GAG in the juxtacanalicular tissue in normals?
Hyaluronic acid.
Elevated levels of ____ are found in some patients with POAG (and in steroid-induced glaucoma)?
TIGR protein (myocilin)
AQP1 might influence outflow facility by reducing ____?
Trabecular meshwork cell volume.
What gene stimulates apoptosis in ganglion cells?
bax, bad
What's the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of the retina?
Glutamate
What's BDNF
Bone Derived Neurotrophic Factor: required for normal physiological functioning of ganglion cells
What's a receptor involved in glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity?
NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate)
Astrocytes store ____ and take up ____ & ____?
Astrocytes store glycogen, and take up neurotransmitters & ions.
Cholinergic agonists cause ____ in the CB and ____ trabecular outflow?
Cholinergic agonists cause muscle contraction in the CB and increased trabecular outflow
Alpha 2 adrenergic agonists ____ aqueous secretion & ____?
Alpha 2 adrenergic agonists reduce aqueous secretion & the blood-aqueous barrier.
How do CAIs affect the NPE & PE?
Reduced loading of NPE and PE with sodium & chloride
What are prostaglandins used for?
Increased uveoscleral outflow.
Beta 2 adrenergic antagonists (CAMP pathway) affect NKCC transporters how?
Reduced NKCC cotransport (agonists increase outflow).
Alpha 1 adrenergic agonists cause ____?
Mydriasis.
Beta 2 adrenergic agonists cause ____?
Reduction in accommodation.
Cytoskeletal agents affect a ____?
Trabecular endothelial cell shape change.
NMDA receptor antagonists are used for ____?
Neuroprotection.