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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Outward forces of pulm capillaries:
pulmonary capillaries:
Interstisial osmotic
pulm cap: 7 mmHg
interstitial osmotic : 14 mmHg
interstial hydrostat : -8 mmHg

Total: 29 mmHg
inward forces of plasma osmotic pressure
28 mmHg
Reasons for pulmonary edema
1. Increased resistance to flow through pulmonary vessels increase hydrostatic P.

2. Increased vascular permeability means higher Kf, greater protein leakage and therefore greater fluid leakage.
Types of pulmonary edema
1. Interstitial

2. Alveolar
CO is proportional to 1/ ___ with arterial pressure is constant
CO = ______ / TPR
Only two factors normally make the heart muscle a better pump:
1. Nervous stimulation
2. Hypertryophy of the muscle
Parameters that affect curve of heart effectiveness
1. Changes in stroke volume
2. Changes in heart rate
3. Changes in preload and afterload.
Factors that cause decrease the hearts ability to pump blood
1. Inhibition of neural input
2. Arrhythmias and reduced heart rates
3. Valvular disease
4. Increased afterload
5. Myocardial damage or toxicity
6. Myocarditis
7. Congenital defect