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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What process do scientists use to answer questions about behavior and mental processes?
The scientific method
Whate are the goals of psychology?
describe, explain, predict, and influence
What role did Wundt play in the foudning of psychology?
Established the first psycholigcal laboratory in 1879
What did Titchener contribute to psychology?
Founded the school of thought called structuralism, an approach aimed at the analyzing the basic elements of conscious mental experience through introspection.
Why is functionalism important to the history of psychology?
Founded by William James, it was the first American school of psychology and broadened the scope of the field to include examination of behavior as well as conscious mental processes.
In what ways have women and minorites shaped the field of psychology, both in the past and today?
They have ahd to overcome significant educational and professional barriers to work in the field. Despite the obstacles, many of these individuals made notworthy contributions.
How to behaviorists explain behavior and mental processes?
They view observable, measurable behavior as the only appropriate subject matter for psychology. Behaviorism also emphasizes the invornment as they key determinant of behavior.
What do psychoanalytic psychologists believe about the role of the unconscious?
An individual's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are determined primarily by the unconscious - the part of the mind that one cannot see and cannot control.
According to Maslow and Rogers, what motivates human behavior and mental processes?
The need for self-actualization.
What is the focus of cognitive psychology?
Mental processes such as memoriy, problem solving, concept formation, resoning and decision making, language, and perception.
How do psychological researchers use naturalistic and laboratory observation?
Researchers observe and record the behavior of human participants or animal subjects naturally.
Researchers exert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the case study?
Appropriate for studying people with rare psycholigical or physiological disorders or brain injuries.
Disadvantages are time, expense, and lack of genrealizability.
How do researchers ensure that survery results are useful?
They must involve a sample that is representative of the population to which the results will be applied.
Why do researchers use experiments to test hypothesis about cause-effect relationships?
Only method that can identify cause-effect relationships
How do independent and dependent variables differ?
A condition or factor manipulated by the researcher to determine its effect on the dependent variable.
Why are experimental and control groups necessary?
Comparing experimental and control groups allows researchers to judge the effects of the independent variable(s) compared to outcomes that occur naturally or in the presence of a placebo.
What kinds of factors introduce bias into experimental studies?
Environmental factors can be a fsourc of bias. Selection bias occurs when there are systematic differences among the groups before the experiment begins. The placebo effect occurs when the participant's expectations inluence the outcome of a treatment or experiment. Experimental bias occurs when the researcher's expectations affect the outcome of the experiment.
What are the limitations of the experimental method?
Experiments are often conducted in unnatural settings, a factor that limits the generalizability of results. Alos, this study method may be unethicalor impossible to use for some research.
What is a correlation coeffecient, and what does it mean?
A correlation coeffecient is a numerical value that indictaes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the correlation method?
When the correlation between two variables is knwon, information about one variable can be used to predict the other. However, a correlation cannot be used to support the conclusion that either variable causes the other.
In what ways can participants bias research results?
Participant-related bias happens when researchers fail to include under-represented in their samples.
What ethical rules must reseachers follow when humans are involved in studies?
All research must conform to applicable laws. Researchers must obtain approval from all institutions involved in the study. Participants must give informed consent, may not be deceived unless necessary, and, if deceived, must be debriefed. Subordinates' participation in a study may not negatively affect them in any way. Participants may be paid after being informed about what is expected in return for payment. Researchers must report their findings in an appropriate forum.
Why are animals used in research?
Animals provide a simpler model for studying similar processes in humans; researchers can exercise more control over animals and use a wider range of medical and other manipulations.
How do psychologists compare theories?
Theories are compared in terms of their usefulness. Useful theories generate testable hypotheses and practical solutions to problems. Theories possessing heuristic value are usefl for stimulating debate and research.
How can critical thinking be used to interpret media reports of psychological research?
Critical thinkers are independent, able to suspend judgement, and willing to cange prior belifes. They also use knowledge of research methods to evaluate research findings reported in the media.
What is the main idea behind evolutionary psychology?
Evolutionary psychology focuses on how human behaviors necessary for survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the course of evolution.
How is biological psychology changing the field of psychology?
Biological psychologists look for connections between specific behaviors (such as agression) and particular biological factors (such as hormone levels) to help explain individual differences. Using modern technology, they have discovered relationships betoween biological and behavorial variables that have resulted in more effective medications for certain disorders and new insight into the genetic base of many mental illnesses.
What kinds of variables interest psychologists who take a sociocultural approach?
The sociocultural approach focuses on how factors such as cultural values affect people's behavior.
What are psychological perspectives, and how are they related to an eclectic position?
psycholigcal perspectives are general points of view used for explaining people's behavior and thinking. In taking an eclectic position, psychologists use a combination of two or more perspectives to explain a particular behavior.
Who are some of the specialists working within psychology?
There are clinical and counseling psychologists, physiological psychologists, experimental psychologists, developmental psychologists, educational psychologists, social psychologists, and industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists.
What kinds of employment opportunities are available for psychology majors?
Individuals with bachelor's degrees in psychology are employes in many different settings. Individuals who want to become professional psychologists must do graduate work.