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50 Cards in this Set

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Appendicular skeleton
Consists of Shoulder bones, collar bones, pelvic bones, arms and legs
Upper Appendicular
consists of Shoulder Girdle which includes: Scapula (shoulderblade), the Acromion process (lateral protrusion of the scapula that forms the highest point of the shoulder), and the Clavicle (collarbone), AND the Upper Extremities (arm) which include the: Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Olecranon (elbow), Carpal, Metacarpal and Phalanx
Lower Appendicular
Pelvis and Lower Extremities: Pelvic bones (pelvic girdle) is the Ilium (superior and widest bone of the pelvis), Ischium (lower portion of the pelvic bone), Pubis or Pubic bone (lower anterior part of the pelvic bone). Lower Extremities (leg) include: Femur (thighbone), Patella (kneecap), Tibia (shin), Fibula (smaller , lateral bone), Malleolus (process on the distal ends of the Tibia and Fibula), Tarsal (one of seven bones of the ankle, hindfoot and midfoot), Metatarsal (one of five foot bones between tarsals and phalanges), Phalanx (one of 14 toe parts, two in the great toe and three in each of the other four toes)
Axil Skeleton
consists of the Skull, Rib Cage and Spine
Surgical puncture and aspiration of a joint to obtain synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes
A surgical reconstruction or replacement of a joint to restore mobility
Examination of the interior of a joint by insertion of an arthroscope through an incision
Bone depression
Any groove, opening or hollow space is a depression hey provide an entrance and exit for vessels and protection for the organs they hold: Fissure, Foramen, Fossa, Sinus, Sulcus
Bone process
Raised or projected areas are called processes. Often areas of attachment for ligaments or tendons: Condyle, Crest, Epicondyle, Head, Spine, Trochanter, Tubercle, Tuberosity
bones store the minerals
calcium [Ca] and Phosphorus [P]
Sacs of fluid that are located between the bones of the joints and the tendons that hold the muscles in place . Help cushion the joints when they move.
"large bone making up the heel of the human foot is categorized as an irregular bone. It is also known as the heel bone.
Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. It is composed of collagenous fibers and/or elastin fibers, and cells called chondrocytes, all of which are embedded in a firm gel-like ground substance called the matrix. Cartilage is avascular (contains no blood vessels) and nutrients are diffused through the matrix. Cartilage serves several functions, including providing a framework upon which bone deposition can begin and supplying smooth surfaces for the movement of articulating bones. Cartilage is found in many places in the body including the joints, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and between intervertebral discs. There are three main types of cartilage: hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage.
A bone that is completely out of its place in a joint
The tough fibrous covering of muscles ( and some nerves and blood vessels)
The continual formation of blood by the bones
Joint or Articulations, are the parts of the body where two or more bones of the skeleton join. Joints provide range of motion (ROM). Examples are knee, which joins the tibia and the femur. Elbow, joins the humerus with the radius and ulna.
Fibrous bands of tissue. Bones are attached to Bones by Ligaments.
Fibrous bands called Ligaments. Bones are connected to Bones by ligaments
Material between bone cells that stores Calcium [Ca] and Phosphorus [P]
Muscles are attached to bones by:
Bands of tissue called Tendons
Musculoskeletal System
Consists of three interrelated parts: bones, articulations (joints), and muscles
Cells that build bone
Cells that breakdown bone
Mature bone cells
An artificial body part that is constructed to replace missinf limbs, eyes, and other body parts (pl. prostheses)
Range of motion (ROM)
The range through which a joint can be extended and flexed. Different joints have different ROM. Synarthroses - No ROM are immovable joints joined together by fibrous cartilaginous tissue. Example: the suture lines of the skull. Amphiarthroses - Limited ROM- joints joined together by cartilage that are slightly moveable. Example: vertebrae of the spine or pubic bones. Diarthroses - Full ROM or also called synovial joints. joints have free movement. Examples: ball-and-socket joint (hip) and hinge joints (knees). Other examples include the elbows, wrists, shoulders, and ankles. Most complex of the joints. Many have bursae (singular bursa). These joints also have joint capsules that enclose the ends of the bones, a synovial membrane that lines the joint capsule and secretes fluid to lubricate the joint, articular cartilage that covers and protects the bone.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Inflammatory joint disease believed to be autoimmune in nature; occurs in a much younger population (ages 20-45)
Lateral S curve of the spine that can cause an individual lose inches in height
Spinal stenosis
Abnormal condition of narrowing of the spinal canal with attendant pain, sometimes caused by osteoarthritis or spondylolisthesis
a traumatic injury to a joint involving the soft tissue; muscles, ligaments and tendons. Swelling, pain, and discoloration of the skin may be present. Severity is measured in grades
a lesser injury than a strain, usually described as an overuse or overstretching of a muscle.
if a bone is partially out of joint. It can be congenital or an acquired condition.
Muscles are attached to bones by strong fibrous bands of connective tissue called Tendons
Types of Bones
Five types of bones - next five questions
flat bones
sternum (breastbone), scapula (shoulder blade)
irregular bones
vertbra (backbone), stapes (a bone in the ear)
long bones
humerus (upperarm bone), femur (thigh bone
sesamoid bons
patella (knee cap)
short bones
carpal (wrist bones), tarsel (ankle bone)
Parts of the bone
Parts of bones - next seven questions
Bone Marrow
Bone marrow (or medulla ossea) is the soft tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. It is the place where most new blood cells are produced. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow (also known as myeloid tissue) and yellow marrow. Red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells arise in red marrow; some white blood cells develop in yellow marrow. The color of yellow marrow is due to the much higher number of fat cells. Both types of bone marrow contain numerous blood vessels and capillaries.
The inner aspect of the bones.
Epiphyseal plate
under the epiphysis. Area where bone growth normally occurs. about ages 16-25 bone growth stops. Epiphyseal plates close and bone growth stops.
end of bones
Medullary Cavity
The medullary cavity is the central cavity of bone shafts where yellow marrow (adipose tissue) is stored. Located in the main shaft of the bone (diaphysis), the medullary cavity has walls composed of compact bone and is lined with a thin, vascular membrane (endosteum).
In an infant this area is involved in the formation of red blood cells, so red marrow is present.
The epiphysis and epiphysis plate together form the Metaphysis. It lies between the Epiphysis and Diaphysis. It is adjacent to the epiphysis plate.
The outer covering of bone. Long bones except at the ends of the epiphyses. Has a large nerve supply as well. Other bones are also covered by Periosteum