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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
measures what type of segmentation?
Psychographic segmentation
Psychographics is driven by notions of
drive and motivation
three broad definitions
Need Driven
Outer Directed
Inner Directed
people's personality is driven by (context)
hard times vs. bouncy prosperity
Frank Luntz
uses language to his advantage when approachng an audience. Merchandising the political party.
language can be (three things)
in use
humpty dumpty
representation language
language corresponds to what it is referring to
in use language
language is arbitrary and takes on meaning as it is used
humpty dumpty
language is whatever I say it is. Cynicism = you can take any language and use it in a way that benefits you
Fragmentation affects
audience niches
Salience of Risk
Risk is an outcome of fragmentation and convergence. Media products are different from other products in that they must innovate. This makes media products more risky
Degrees of Risk
Economic and Political
Economic Risk
1) you might fail if you innovate
2) it costs money to innovate
Political Risk
1) regulation
2) Flack, negative audience response
Methods of Coping
administrative risk coping
these business practices are neither creative nor innovative:
1) Synergy
2) Product Placement
3) Cross Promotion
4) Marketing
5) Tie Ins
SPCMT = Sidra Punches Christina's Mid-Thigh
Content risk coping
Following tried and true methods. Nothing new is invented. formulas and stereotypes
When is innovation and risk taking most likely?
1) In small companies
They can work faster than small companies because they have less red tape to cross, and not as many bosses to deal with. They also have less to lose by innovating
2) When the financial picture is bad
If it’s not broken, don’t fix it. Success does not beget innovation. Bottom rating shows must innovate to rise in ratings
Regulatory Models
Newspaper Regulatory Model
many people do not respond well to this
First Amendment – congress shall make no law that restricts ...
Self regulation = the station regulates itself
The good and the evil must coexist in order to recognize the difference
Broadcast Regulatory Model
Allows for more government control
Scarcity of channels = more people wanted to be on the radio than there were channels, prompting the government to regulate more often
Broadcast Regulatory Model (Content)
Content Regulation
Regulate for obscenity
Political speech ‘equal time’ = equal time for every candidate for specific offices
Adult programming runs from 10:00pm to 5:00am
Broadcast Regulatory Model (Ownership)
Ownership Regulation
Many ownership caps (a limit on the number of stations you could own) have been relaxed. You can now operate a television station, radio station, etc. at the same time
‘Natural monopoly’
Power lines need to be put up and they need help from the government. There is much government regulation
‘Universal Access’
Telephones are so important that they should be available to everyone
Does channel fragmentation lead to audience polarization?
Fragmentation destroys communication between groups and creates a gated community effect
Fragmentation Context
Channel Availability
1990 = 33 available channels w/o paying extra
2003 = 100 available channels w/o paying extra
2006 = 339 channels total from networks
‘Society making’ media versus ‘segment making’ media
Society making media are the big 3. It makes social cohesion. We all watch ABC and are all exposed to the same views and ideas. It solidifies a nation under one media by showing the LCD = the lowest common denominator, which attracts the broadest possible audience
Fragmentation in media creates fragmentation in societal thought. It makes room for minorities, creating gay/lesbian and black channels. Is this life enriching?
Horizontal and vertical diversity of exposure
Vertical = are people not sampling or roaming through all 339 channels?
Horizontal = is there much choice out there? There seems to be, with 339 channels available
De Facto Polarization
Niche programming – audience selling
Viewing practices – how many channels do you watch on average? Around 9 channels per 100 are viewed by the average American household. = around 10% of what is offered
Law of Double Jeopardy
Made in response to De Facto polarization – argues against De Facto
Most people spend little time watching their 9 channels
Unpopular programs (programs with a small audience) attract disloyal audiences which do not spend a lot of time there
What does this say about polarization?
National Television Index
from Nielson Media Research (based off of 5,000 households)
two measures of NTI
TSV (time spent viewing)
Share Within Cume
TSV (time spent viewing)
average conventional time spent viewing per week
Share Within Cume
% of actual viewers. Cume = total number of viewers
evidence for audience fragmentation in terms of share within cume and TSV
High share within cume and high TSV
Fragmentation is stronger than believed - % of big 3?
The big 3 account for 17% TSV, during a given week, less than 20% of people’s time is spent with the big three. This is much lower than audience share
Networks continue to occupy unique positions
How many people ever watch the network?
The networks have a very large reach, about 2/3 of the audience. Cable’s best is only 1/3
As a rule, unpopular channels have a low audience loyalty
Exceptions = HBO, Cinemax, Lifetime Movies, Fox news all have high loyalty
Movie channels have high loyalty only because they play long movies = many short audiences
Fox = real audience loyalty. No one knows why….
Macro Routines
Institutional arrangements and formats
Concentrated Ownership
Service providers
VNRs (video news release) and Syndication (one person is sold to a variety of newspapers or magazines, like Dear Abby)
Concentrated Ownership
results in cross subsidies of cross pollonization. Companies use strengths in one part of the company to benefit another part of the company
are being brought in to design news programs. Few consultants are used for the entire country, so there is very little variety in news programs
Ex. Every news station has an eyewitness news. Also, consultants administer q tests
Service providers
Mainly PR firms hired by companies. Provide stories to the news, form companies. Companies produce their own stories
VNRs (video news release)
VNRs are professionally done news programs designed to be integrated into news programming
Caused a lot of trouble in 1994 and led to New FCC rules.
news releases from the government must be labeled. Only government releases, however. This does not apply to pharmaceutical news
Micro Routines
Everyday practices of predictability and efficiency
Definition of News
Production Formulas = Inverted Pyramid
Micro Routine
most organizations have PR or information offices, to get their story out
Definition of News
Micro Routine
Must Be:
Impactful (broad, social impact)
Novel or Extraordinary
Prominent (figure with high name recognition)
Inverted Pyramid
1st paragraph of a news story
Answers the 5 W's and H
Tabloid History
News and ballad books of 1700’s = Puritanical
Very conservative in terms of sexism, racism, etc
1880’s came with the rise of Yellow Journalism
Penny Press = 1cent each, was made possible by many advertiser
Current circulation of Tabloids
around 40 million
Pass along rate is around 4 people per issue
Demographics of Tabloids
65% female
35 yrs, median
Income = 51% under $20,000 per year
60% have no high school education
Don’t have many ads because the audience is not very desirable
Tabloid topics = 3 main
Health/Medical Breakthroughs
Conspiracy Theories/Supernatural
Tabloid Style
Scandalous pictures for cover art
Tabloid Language
Frequent use of slang and puns
How different is the tabloid formula from mainstream journalism?
Objectivity – they both use it! Objectivity is discussed and stories are not made up in tabloids
Use credible sources – experts on the paranormal. They always want credible sources for stories, not making things up
Cooperation with news sources – cooperation between sources and the newspaper, “off the record” means that the info can be used, but it cannot be sourced

Main difference = targeting to different audiences
Main social implication of tabloids
tabloids are very conservative ethically. Very homophobic and women are placed in very traditional roles. Do not engage people in political activity = hermits. Promotes the thought that the government cannot be trusted
initiative started in the 1970s to study global communication
Why study global communication?
Recognize issues and relevance
Position self in a global debate
What does NWICO do?
Study of ‘flow’ – occupied most of the time. Tracking how much and in what direction communication moves across the world. It is easy to document.
Related issues: Patterns, equity, impacts. It is much more difficult to track because it tracks social, political, and economic effects
Unesco, related to NWICO
1946 ‘free flow doctrine’
Major international institution. It is the company that studies global communication.
Organization within the United Nations that wants to contribute funds to cultural exchange initiations, such as international film festivals. Provides training for journalists
‘free flow doctrine’ – part of Unesco constitution (pillar) – the best way to achieve Unesco’s mission is through unfettered communication
Political vehicle dominated by the western values
Nairobi Conference 1976
Non-aligned movement = coalition of nations (former colonies of western powers in Africa and Asia, plus Latin America). As a group, they could outvote the west.
Criticized the free flow doctrine (FFD) as being a monopoly domination by the Western society/media (TV and film)
They are too poor to compete with Western film and news stations
Dependency – there are two sets of country in the world, the Core countries (Western countries) will always dominate the Periphery countries (3rd world).
Periphery countries contribute raw materials and core countries manufacture products and sell them back to the periphery countries at a profit
This theory is wrong, however. Today, everything is manufactured in periphery countries
Neo Colonialism = not colonialism by military power, but by hegemony. Allows for unsymmetrical relationships
Selling things overseas is a huge source of revenue. It is to our advantage to sell to many poor countries.
MacBride Commission – formed in 1976
Examine flows of communication and their impact.
1980 – publication of Many Voices, One World
New World Information and Communication Order
Shift from ‘free’ to ‘free and balanced’ floe. It is impossible to have a free, two way flow.
Goal: Remedy information imbalances
Goal: Plurality of sources and channels
Reaffirmation of free press principles
Call for ‘right to communicate’ – not the same thing as free flow
Flow of information - what are the trends?
The flow of information goes form the developed world to the underdeveloped world. Where can you see an African Film? What network carries programming from the third world? Flow is unidirectional, from North to South. Why is this flow unidirectional?
Cultural Imperialism
Tradition of colonial power = military empire
Modern empires are maintained symbolically, not through military coercion
Cheap programming advertising the ‘American’ way of life
Advertising supported media system. How you tell a story is changed/segmented to leave room for advertising. There is no advertising in Public Access Broadcasting
Differing signals customize TV’s, etc. to different countries. French DVDs don’t work in the states
Russian Communist Game Show
Comparative Advantage
Economics – David Ricardo
US Specialized in Communication
Language – English is a very accessible language
Large, competitive domestic market
Critical mass of talent. We have schools of journalism founded by media companies in the US – an advantage for the US
Wide availability of services:
Financial (banks)
Equipment (rental)
Talent (cat wranglers)
Narrative ability – most contentious. Because the US is a consumer based country, we tell stories that have a wide, mass appeal. The rise of Hollywood is not typical. Universal Appeal vs. Artsy
Subsidization, not domination
Cultures change and weak cultures die.
Advertising and Consumer Research
Enhances Democracy?
Possibilities – if greater competition and reduces number of corporations as bad as regulation
Maybe – opportunities and choices
Advertising and Consumer Research
Undermines Democracy?
Tendencies – targeting youth, not giving them a lot of choices
Poor job of informing
Language of marketing ‘learn’ about youth vs. ‘shaping’ youth
Ratings do not necessarily create good information
‘feedback’ loop contrary to independent crucial thought