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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is paternalism?
What is fiduciary?
Paternalism: when the media or someone else decides the content that is appropriate for you.
EX: Editorial Control

Fiduciary: The client and the professional work together and ultimately the client makes the decision.
advocacy and agency
Advocacy: advertising & PR. to advocate is to take up the cause of another and work on that other's behalf to promote that cause.Advocacy fits into the agency model: a professional acts under the direction of the client.
EX: attorneys
1) professional is neutral.
2)professinal is agressive for the clients ends
Libel, Slander, defamation
What 5 things constitute defamation? Defenses?
Libel:published communication; written document
Slander: Spoken; something said to a third party.
Defamation: any communication that holds a person to contempt, ridicule or scorn.
1)A statement communicated to harm a persons reputation, even self-esteem
2) communication must be published(libel) or spoken (slander) to a third party
3)Person defamed must be identified in the communication either by direct name or reference.
4) person defamed must prove that damage was caused to thier reputation.
5) Negligence must also be shown; poor information gathering; knowing falsehood or disregard for truth.
1) If it is true
2) privilege: if statement was made during public, official or judicial proceeding.
3)Fair comment: right to critisize.
Invasion of Privacy (3)
1) Appropriation: commercial use of a persons name or picture without permission.
2) Private facts: information about a person's life.
3) Intrusion: spying on someone
Journalistic Truth VS. Journalistic Deception
Journalistic Truth:
1) Accuracy: get facts straight
2) Context: vital to understand story
3) Balance: fairness
Journalistic Deception:
Deception that clearly benefits the public welfare is ok. EX: Food Lion
Deception that results in satisfying public curiosity is not ok.
Negligence (4)
1) an established duty to to the affected party
2) someone must breach that duty
3) affected party must be harmed
4) harm must be caused by breach of duty
Liberty Limiting Principles
1) Harm Principle: Restrict other peoples freedom because it may harm someone else. Broadcasting
2)Offense principle: an act tha offends another person may be prohibited. EX: sale of pornography to those under 18
3) Priciple of legal moralsim: something may be prohibited because it is simply immoral.--least defensible
4) Prinicple or legal paternalism: we have the obligation to protect others from harm; prevent forseeable harm. EX: helmet with motorcycle
Kim Sheehan
Stereotypes (2 theories)
1) Cultivation Theory: The more exposed we are to TV the more the world view is shaped by what we see on TV.
2) Expectancy Theory: Power of TV mass media; we begin to act like what we see on TV. EX: acting like the stereotypes
Micheal Huntsberger
Radio: Indusrty Guidelines & Practices
1) advance listeners understanding
2) do not distort sense of the original
3) Remain true to essence of event
4) be consistent im editing
1) internal edits: remove pauses, stammers
2) voice enhancement to improve clarity
3) adding natural sound, music
4) overlapping or dubbinh tracks
5) Expunge profanity
Tom Wheeler
Photo Manipulation
Oualified Expectation of Reality: What you expect when you see ads. You don't really expect to fly when you see a redbull commercial. Truth value differs for fashion pics/war pics
Kant vs Utilitarian
Kant: truth is fundamental to a society's functioning
Utilitarian: would tell a lie if it benefited the greater good
Prinicple of veracity
Not all lies are condemed: but they must be proven to be a necessary last resort.
Main Elements (3)
1) Accuracy: verify based on solid evidence, accurate, unaltered quotes, sources
2)promote understanding: provide complete account, relevent info included to prevent misunderstanding
3) fair and balanced: enhance understanding of an issue, quotes in full conext.
When is deciet ok? (4)
Kantian: any form of lying erodes trust between reporters and audience
Utilitarian: must be used at times to further public interest
Deciet is ok when decsion makers are:
1)convinced info is important for public to know
2) have considered all other alternatives
3) benefit must outweigh harm
4)tell audience about the deception and why they used it.
Media & Political Bias
1) Commercial Bias: news media are a money making business
2) Temporal Bias: The news media are bias toward the immediate.
3)Visual Bias: Television is bias toward visual depictions of the news
4) Bad News Bias: Good news is boring
5) Narrative Bias: The news media cover the news in terms of stories that must have a beginning, middle and end--a plot with pro and antagonists--but much of what happens is really ambiguous
6)Status Quo Bias: The news media believe "the system works"
7) Fairness bias:reporters and editors be fair.
8) Expediency bias:Journalism is a competitave, deadline-driven profession.
9) Glory Bias: Journalists, especially television reporters, often insert themselves into the stories they cover.
Privacy (4)
1) Intrusion:uninvited
2)Publicity of embarassing private facts: media liable if offensive and not legitimate
3) False light: media liable if falsehoods leave impressions about someone:usually accident
4) appropriation:Use of person's name, pic,likeness w/o permission for exploitation:usually intentional:financial benefit
Why do we need it? (3)
1) the law of privacy has stripped away protection from public officials and public figures
2) newsworthiness: needs to know rather than curious about
3) substantial latitude for news-gathering in public places
Journalistic Guidelines (3)
1) self-respect for persons as an end in itself
2) social utility
3) justice
respect privacy, respect person
Advertising Ethics
1) any form of public announcement aimed to promote the acceptemce or purchase of a commodity
2)Organization that solicits, creates and places ads & measures effects
3) client of agency who pays the bills
Advertising Ethics
1)Economic: tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth: informs people about the availability of new products
2)political: Informs people of ideas and policy proposals of candiates and parties
3)Cultural: ads have ability to exert positive influence on decisions made about media content
Advertising Ethics
1)Nothing intrinsically good or evil about advertising.
2)Economic harm: can betray its role by misrepresentation w/o relevant facts
3)Political Harm: can obstruct working of democratic process
4)Cultural Harm: corrupt influence on culture and cultural values
Advertising Ethics
2 principles
1) Truthfulness in advertising:QER
2) The dignity of the human person: Kant
Advertising Ethics
Steps (5)
1) Voluntary ethical codes are on such source support
2) Public Involvment
3) Public authorities play a role
4) Media of news and info should keep the public informed about advertising
5) advertisers need to be responsible
PR and Ethics
3 ways ethical behavior in PR
1) social responsibilty: obligated to society
2) professional perspective
3) personal perspective
PR and Ethics
4 criteria to be in PR
PR and Ethics
Characteristics (5)
1) Set of professional values
2) Strong Professional Organization
3)Adherence to professional norms
4)Intellectual tradition and established body of knowledge
5)technical skills aquired through professional training
PR and Ethics
Professionaly Obligated to: (6)
3)organization or employer
4)profession and colleagues
6)to do their duty